Franklin Delano Roosevelt

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Franklin Delano Roosevelt
Franklin Delano Roosevelt

Mandat
4. ožujka, 1933. – 12. travnja, 1945.
Potpredsjednik   1) John N. Garner
(1933. - 1941.)
2) Henry A. Wallace
(1941. - 1945.)
Prethodnik  Herbert Hoover
Nasljednik Harry S. Truman

Rođenje 30. siječnja 1882.
Hyde Park, New York, SAD
Smrt 12. travnja 1945.
Warm Springs, Georgia, SAD
Politička stranka Demokratska stranka
Supruga Eleanor Roosevelt
Vjera Episkop

Potpis
Franklin D. Roosevelt signature.png

Franklin Delano Roosevelt (30. siječnja 1882. - 12. travnja 1945.), američki državnik i političar, za predsjednika Sjedinjenih Američkih Država biran četiri puta uzastopno.[1][2]

Odrastao u uglednoj njujorškoj aristokratskoj familiji, Roosevelt se politikom počeo baviti od godine 1909. kao pristaša Demokratske stranke. Za vrijeme prvog svjetskog rata se istakao na položaju pomoćnika ministra za mornaricu.

FDR kao Asistent tajnika za mornaricu

Godine 1921. je obolio od dječje paralize, bolesti zbog koje nije mogao hodati, ali čije postojanje je, slično kao i ljubavna veza sa sekretaricom Lucy Mercer, ostalo tajnom do kraja njegovog života. Zahvaljujući tome je godine 1928. izabran za guvernera New Yorka.

Godine 1932. je izabran za predsjednika SAD u jeku velike ekonomske krize. Njegov prvi mandat bio je obilježen nastojanjem da oporavi nacionalnu ekonomiju, pri čemu je primijenio niz reformi inspiriranih idejama britanskog ekonomista Johna Maynarda Keynesa. Ta politika, poznata pod nazivom New Deal, je počela davati rezultate tek s izbijanjem drugog svjetskog rata.

U međuvremenu je Roosevelt ponovno izabran za predsjednika godine 1936. Za vrijeme drugog mandata su ekonomska pitanja s vremenom došla u sjenu svjetskih događaja koji će godine 1939. eskalirati u drugi svjetski rat. Koristeći tu krizu kao izgovor, Roosevelt je prekinuo s dotadašnjim presedanom i kandidirao se po treći put, te pobijedio na izborima godine 1940. Iako je inzistirao na tome da SAD podržavaju Veliku Britaniju (a poslije SSSR), te razvio lično prijateljstvo s Winstonom Churchillom, zbog tada dominirajućeg izolacionizma u američkoj javnosti se SAD nisu uključile u rat sve do japanskog napada na Pearl Harbor godinu dana kasnije.

Roosevelt se istakao kao dalekovidan, ali i pragmatičan ratni vođa. Ispravno je zaključio da se prvo mora poraziti Njemačka, a tek onda Japan, pri čemu je bez ikakvih ideoloških predrasuda Sovjetima slao obimnu vojnu pomoć. Sudjelovao je na dva summitta savezničkih vođa - u Teheranu godine 1943. i Jalti godine 1945. - prilikom kojih se odlučivalo u sudbini poslijeratne Europe.

Za predsjednika je ponovno izabran godine 1944. i umro nekoliko mjeseci kasnije, nedugo prije pobjedonosnog završetka rata.

Zahvaljujući njegovoj politici odbacivanja tradicionalnog izolacionizma, SAD se nisu samo izvukle iz dotada nezapamćene ekonomske i političke krize, nego su se nametnule kao glavna vojna, ekonomska, politička i kulturna sila u svijetu - status u kome uživaju do današnjeg dana.

Život i djelo[uredi - уреди]

Roosevelt (sredina) na Jaltskoj konferenciji zajedno sa Churchillom (lijevo) i Staljinom (desno)

Franklin Delano Roosevelt rođen je 30. siječnja 1882. godine. Politkom se počeo baviti 1907. godine, a već 1910. izabran je za senatora savezne države New York na listi Demokratske stranke. Predsjednik Wilson imenovao ga je 1913. podsekretarom mornarice. Na toj dužnosti je ostao do 1920. godine kada je Demokratska stranka izgubila izbore. Iako obolio od paralize 1921. nastavio je političku djelatnost te je 1928. godine izabran za guvernera savezne države New York. Na konvenciji Demokratske stranke 1931. izabran je za predsjedničkog kandidata. Na izborima 1932. godine Franklin Delano Roosevelt odnosi nadmoćnu pobjedu - samo šest država nije glasalo za njega. Na predsjedničkoj inaguraciji 1933. u ožujku obećao je New Deal (socijalne mjere u vrijeme duboke ekonomske krize koje su mu donijele veliku popularnost) i izrekao, kasnije čuvenu, rečenicu:

Dopustite da iznesem svoje čvrsto vjerovanje kako se trebamo bojati jedino straha samoga.

S New Dealom Roosevelt je pokrenuo kampanju radikalnih mjera za ozdravljenje nacionalne privrede. Kampanja je uključivala masovni program javnih radova (brane, šume, autoceste) koji su financirani iz saveznog proračuna. Ovi radovi omogućili su zapošljavanje nekoliko milijuna ljudi. Uz to reorganiziran je bankovni sustav, uvedeno je osiguranje za nezaposlene i starosna mirovina. Također je izmijenio politiku Sjedinjenih Država prema država Srednje i Južne Amerike u politiku dobrog susjedstva. Tri godine prije ponovnog izbora za predsjednika Sjedinjenih Država, točnije 1933. godine, sa Sovjetskim Savezom uspostavlja diplomatske odnose.

Godine 1940. treći se put kandidirao za predsjednika Sjedinjenih Država, što je to dotada bilo nezabilježeno u američkoj povijesti. U kolovozu 1941. Roosevelt i Churchill sastali su se u Placentia Bayu u New Foundlandu (Kanada) i sastavili Atlansku povelju koja je sadržavala četiri tzv. Rooseveltova pravila koja je iste godine objavio u Povelji o četiri slobode: misli, vjere, od bijede i od straha. Atlanska povelja značila je začetak Ujedinjenih naroda. S Churchillom je potpisao i Zakon o zajmu i najmu kojim je omogućio američku pomoć u borbi protiv Sila Osovine.

U studenome 1944. godine po četvrti put pobjeđuje na predsjedničkim izborima. Već prilikom susreta na Jalti (u veljači 1945. godine) s Churchillom i Staljinom vidno je bolestan. Tada ga je pregledao Churchillov liječnik i dao mu manje od šest mjeseci života. Preminuo je 17. travnja 1945. od izljeva krvi u mozak u Warm Springsu u saveznoj državi Georgiji. Pokopan je u Washingtonu. Postumno po njemu je nazvan jedan nosač zrakoplova američke mornarice. Također postumno 1948. godine u Londonu mu je otkriven spomenik na jednom od londonskih trgova. Spomenik je na svečanom otvaranju otkrila Rooseveltova supruga Anna Eleanor Roosevelt.

Reference[uredi - уреди]

  1. "President Franklin D. Roosevelt First Inaugural Address". YouTube. Google. October 15, 2009. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Lm3Bntsp2ck. pristupljeno March 4, 2014. 
  2. Moore, Frazier. "PBS' 'The Roosevelts' portrays an epic threesome", September 10, 2014, pristupljeno September 10, 2014.

Literatura[uredi - уреди]

  • Black, Conrad (2005), Franklin Delano Roosevelt: Champion of Freedom, ISBN 978-1-58648-282-4, http://books.google.com/books?id=lYVCi70HaigC .
  • Brands, HW (2009), Traitor to His Class: The Privileged Life and Radical Presidency of Franklin Delano Roosevelt, ISBN 978-0-385-51958-8 : despite the title, a highly favorable biography by scholar. Plus Author Webcast Interview at the Pritzker Military Library on January 22, 2009
  • Burns, James MacGregor (1956). Roosevelt. 1. Easton Press. ISBN 978-0-15-678870-0. 
  • ——— (1970). Roosevelt: the soldier of freedom. 2. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. ISBN 978-0-15-678870-0. http://hdl.handle.net/2027/heb.00626. .
  • Cook, Blanche Wiesen (1992). Eleanor Roosevelt. 1. Penguin. ISBN 0-14-009460-1. 
  • Davis, Kenneth S (1972), FDR: The Beckoning of Destiny, 1882–1928, ISBN 978-0-399-10998-0 .
  • Freidel, Frank (1952–73), Franklin D. Roosevelt, 4 volumes, OCLC 459748221 : the most detailed scholarly biography; ends in 1934.
  • Freidel, Frank (1990), Franklin D. Roosevelt: A Rendezvous with Destiny, one volume, ISBN 978-0-316-29260-3 ; covers entire life.
  • Goodwin, Doris Kearns (1995), No Ordinary Time: Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt: The Home Front in World War II, ISBN 978-0-684-80448-4 ; popular joint biography
  • Gunther, John (1950), Roosevelt in Retrospect, Harper & Brothers, http://archive.org/details/rooseveltinretro00gunt 
  • Hawley, Ellis (1995). The New Deal and the Problem of Monopoly. Fordham University Press. ISBN 0-8232-1609-8. 
  • Jenkins, Roy (2003), Franklin Delano Roosevelt, ISBN 978-0-8050-6959-4 .
  • Lash, Joseph P (1971), Eleanor and Franklin: The Story of Their Relationship Based on Eleanor Roosevelt's Private Papers, ISBN 978-0-393-07459-8 .
  • Morgan, Ted (1985), FDR: A biography, ISBN 978-0-671-45495-1 .
  • Pederson, William D (2011), A Companion to Franklin D. Roosevelt, Blackwell ; 35 essays by scholars.
  • Rowley, Hazel (2010). Franklin and Eleanor: An Extraordinary Marriage. Farrar, Straus & Giroux. ISBN 978-0-374-15857-6. 
  • Siracusa, Joseph M.; Coleman, David G. (2002). Depression to Cold War: a history of America from Herbert Hoover to Ronald Reagan. Greenwood Publishing. ISBN 978-0-275-97555-5. 
  • Smith, Jean Edward (2007). FDR. New York: Random House. ISBN 978-1-4000-6121-1. 
  • Tully, Grace (2005). Franklin Delano Roosevelt, My Boss. Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4179-8926-3. 
  • Ward, Geoffrey C (1985), Before The Trumpet: Young Franklin Roosevelt, 1882–1905, ISBN 978-0-06-015451-6 
  • Ward, Geoffrey C (1992), A First-Class Temperament: The Emergence of Franklin Roosevelt, ISBN 978-0-06-016066-1 : covers 1905–32.
  • Winkler, Allan M. (2006). Franklin D. Roosevelt and the Making of Modern America. Longman. ISBN 0-321-41285-0. 
  • Adamthwaite, Anthony (1977). France and the Coming of the Second World War 1936–1939. Frank Cass. 
  • Alter, Jonathan (2006), The Defining Moment: FDR's Hundred Days and the Triumph of Hope, ISBN 978-0-7432-4600-2 .
  • Badger, Anthony (2008), FDR: The First Hundred Days, ISBN 0-8090-4441-2  200 pp; overview by leading British scholar.
  • Ball, Howard (2006). Hugo L. Black: Cold Steel Warrior. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-507814-4. 
  • Beasley, Maurine, ur. (2001), The Eleanor Roosevelt Encyclopedia, ISBN 0-313-30181-6, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=101379496 .
  • Bellush, Bernard (1955). Franklin D. Roosevelt as Governor of New York. LCCN 55006181. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=99016750. 
  • Collins, Robert M. (2002). More: The Politics of Economic Growth in Postwar America. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-515263-8. 
  • Graham, Otis L; Wander, Meghan Robinson, ur. (1985), Franklin D. Roosevelt: His Life and Times, ISBN 978-0-8161-8667-9 .
  • Jordan, David M (2011), FDR, Dewey, and the Election of 1944 .
  • Kennedy, David M (1999), Freedom From Fear: The American People in Depression and War, 1929–1945, ISBN 978-0-19-503834-7 .
  • Kennedy, David M (Summer 2009), "What the New Deal Did", Political Science Quarterly 124 (2), DOI:10.1002/j.1538-165x.2009.tb00648.x .
  • Leuchtenburg, William E. (1963). Franklin D. Roosevelt and the New Deal, 1932–1940. Harpers. ISBN 978-0-06-133025-4. 
  • Leuchtenburg, William E (2005), "Showdown on the Court", Smithsonian (Ebsco) 36 (2), ISSN 0037-7333 .
  • Leuchtenburg, William E (2009), In the Shadow of FDR: From Harry Truman to Barack Obama , his long-term influence
  • McCullough, David (1992). Truman. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-671-86920-5. 
  • McMahon, Kevin J (2004), Reconsidering Roosevelt on Race: How the Presidency Paved the Road to Brown, ISBN 978-0-226-50088-1 .
  • Miscamble, Wilson D. (2007). From Roosevelt to Truman: Potsdam, Hiroshima, and the Cold War. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-86244-2. 
  • Parmet, Herbert S; Hecht, Marie B (1968), Never Again: A President Runs for a Third Term, Questia, http://www.questia.com/library/book/never-again-a-president-runs-for-a-third-term-by-marie-b-hecht-herbert-s-parmet.jsp , on 1940 election.
  • Pederson, William D (2011), A Companion to Franklin D. Roosevelt , 768 pages; essays by scholars covering major historiographical themes.
  • Rauchway, Eric (2008), The Great Depression and The New Deal; A Very Short Introduction, ISBN 978-0-19-532634-5 , balanced summary
  • Ritchie, Donald A (2007), Electing FDR: The New Deal Campaign of 1932, ISBN 978-0-7006-1687-9 .
  • Rosen, Elliot A (2005), Roosevelt, the Great Depression, and the Economics of Recovery, ISBN 978-0-8139-2368-0 .
  • Schlesinger, Arthur M. Jr (1957–60), The Age of Roosevelt, 3 volumes, OCLC 466716 , the classic narrative history. Strongly supports FDR.
  • Schweikart, Larry; Allen, Michael (2004). A Patriot's History of the United States. Easton Press. 
  • Shaw, Stephen K; Pederson, William D; Frank J, ur. (2004), Franklin D. Roosevelt and the Transformation of the Supreme Court, ISBN 978-0-7656-1033-1 .
  • Sitkoff, Harvard (1978). A New Deal for Blacks. ISBN 0-19-502418-4. 
  • Berthon, Simon; Potts, Joanna (2007). Warlords: An Extraordinary Re-creation of World War II Through the Eyes and Minds of Hitler, Churchill, Roosevelt, and Stalin. Da Capo Press. ISBN 0-306-81538-9 
  • Beschloss, Michael (2002). The Conquerors: Roosevelt, Truman, and the destruction of Hitler's Germany, 1941–1945. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-684-81027-0. 
  • Burns, James MacGregor (1970). Roosevelt: The Soldier of Freedom. San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. ISBN 978-0-15-178871-2. 
  • Caputi, Robert (2000). Neville Chamberlain and Appeasement. Associated University Press. 
  • Churchill, Winston (1977). The Grand Alliance. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. ISBN 0-395-41057-6. 
  • Cole, Wayne S (Mar 1957), "American Entry into World War II: A Historiographical Appraisal", The Mississippi Valley Historical Review (JStor) 43 (4), DOI:10.2307/1902275 .
  • Dallek, Robert (1995). Franklin D. Roosevelt and American Foreign Policy, 1932–1945. Oxford University. ISBN 0-19-509732-7. 
  • Glantz, Mary E (2005), FDR and the Soviet Union: The President's Battles over Foreign Policy, U. Press of Kansas, ISBN 978-0-7006-1365-6 , 253 pp.
  • Hamilton, Nigel. The Mantle of Command: FDR at War, 1941–1942 (Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2014) 514 pp.
  • Heinrichs, Waldo (1988), Threshold of War. Franklin Delano Roosevelt and American Entry into World War II, ISBN 978-0-19-504424-9 .
  • Kaiser, David. No End Save Victory: How FDR Led the Nation into War (2014) excerpt and text search
  • Kimball, Warren (1991), The Juggler: Franklin Roosevelt as World Statesman, ISBN 978-0-691-04787-4 .
  • Langer, William; Gleason, S Everett (1952), The Challenge to Isolation, 1937–1940, OCLC 1448535 . The Undeclared War, 1940–1941 (1953) OCLC 404227. highly detailed and influential two-volume semi-official history
  • Mayers, David. FDR's Ambassadors and the Diplomacy of Crisis: From the Rise of Hitler to the End of World War II (2013)
  • Larrabee, Eric, Commander in Chief: Franklin Delano Roosevelt, His Lieutenants, and Their War, ISBN 978-0-06-039050-1 . Detailed history of how FDR handled the war.
  • Reynolds, David (2006), From World War to Cold War: Churchill, Roosevelt, and the International History of the 1940s, ISBN 978-0-19-928411-5, http://www.questia.com/read/118026998/from-world-war-to-cold-war-churchill-roosevelt 
  • Sainsbury, Keith (1994). Churchill and Roosevelt at War: The War They Fought and the Peace They Hoped to Make. New York University Press. ISBN 0-8147-7991-3. 
  • Sherwood, Robert E (1949), Roosevelt and Hopkins: an Intimate History, http://hdl.handle.net/2027/heb.00749 , Pulitzer Prize.
  • Watt, D.C. (1989), How War Came The Immediate Origins of the Second World War, New York: Pantheon Books .
  • Weinberg, Gerhard L (1994), A World at Arms: A Global History of World War II, ISBN 978-0-521-44317-3, http://hdl.handle.net/2027/heb.00331 . Overall history of the war; strong on diplomacy of FDR and other main leaders.
  • Woods, Randall Bennett (1990), A Changing of the Guard: Anglo-American Relations, 1941–1946, ISBN 978-0-8078-1877-0 .
  • Barnes, Harry Elmer (1953), Perpetual War for Perpetual Peace: A Critical Examination of the Foreign Policy of Franklin Delano Roosevelt and Its Aftermath . A revisionist blames FDR for inciting Japan to attack.
  • Best, Gary Dean (1991), Pride, Prejudice, and Politics: Roosevelt Versus Recovery, 1933–1938, Praeger ; summarizes newspaper editorials.
  • Best, Gary Dean (2002), The Retreat from Liberalism: Collectivists versus Progressives in the New Deal Years  criticizes intellectuals who supported FDR.
  • Breitman, Richard; Lichtman, Allan J (2013), FDR and the Jews, Harvard University Press , 433 pp.
  • Conkin, Paul K (1975), New Deal , critique from the left.
  • Doenecke, Justus D; Stoler, Mark A (2005), Debating Franklin D. Roosevelt's Foreign Policies, 1933–1945, Rowman & Littlefield . 248 pp.
  • Feingold, Henry L (1970), The Politics of Rescue: The Roosevelt Administration and the Holocaust, 1938–1945 .
  • Flynn, John T (1948), The Roosevelt Myth , former FDR supporter condemns all aspects of FDR.
  • Moley, Raymond (1939), After Seven Years .
  • Russett, Bruce M (1997), No Clear and Present Danger: A Skeptical View of the United States Entry into World War II (2nd izd.) , says US should have let USSR and Germany destroy each other.
  • Plaud, Joseph J (2005), Historical Perspectives on Franklin D. Roosevelt, American Foreign Policy, and the Holocaust, The FDR American Heritage Center Museum, http://www.fdrheritage.org/fdr&holocaust.htm .
  • Powell, Jim (2003), FDR's Folly: How Roosevelt and His New Deal Prolonged the Great Depression, ISBN 0-7615-0165-7 .
  • Robinson, Greg (2001), By Order of the President: FDR and the Internment of Japanese Americans  says FDR's racism was primarily to blame.
  • Schivelbusch, Wolfgang (2006), Three New Deals: Reflections on Roosevelt's America, Mussolini's Italy, and Hitler's Germany, 1933–1939 , compares populist and paternalist features.
  • Smiley, Gene (1993), Rethinking the Great Depression  by libertarian economist who blames both Hoover and FDR.
  • Wyman, David S (1984), The Abandonment of the Jews: America and the Holocaust 1941–1945, Pantheon Books . Attacks Roosevelt for passive complicity in allowing Holocaust to happen.
  • Braden, Waldo W; Brandenburg, Earnest, ur. (1955), "Roosevelt's Fireside Chats", Communication Monographs 22 (5), DOI:10.1080/03637755509375155 .
  • Buhite, Russell D; Levy, David W, ur. (1993), FDR's Fireside Chats .
  • Craig, Douglas B (2005), Fireside Politics: Radio and Political Culture in the United States, 1920–1940 .
  • Crowell, Laura (1952), "Building the 'Four Freedoms' Speech", Communication Monographs 22 (5), DOI:10.1080/03637755509375153 .
  • Crowell, Laura (1950), "Franklin D. Roosevelt's Audience Persuasion in the 1936 Campaign", Communication Monographs 17, DOI:10.1080/03637755009374997 .
  • Houck, Davis W (2002), FDR and Fear Itself: The First Inaugural Address, Texas A&M UP .
  • Houck, Davis W (2001), Rhetoric as Currency: Hoover, Roosevelt, and the Great Depression, Texas A&M UP .
  • Roosevelt, Franklin D. (2005), My Friends, Kessinger Publishing, ISBN 1-4179-9610-2 
  • Ryan, Halford Ross (1979), "Roosevelt's First Inaugural: A Study of Technique", Quarterly Journal of Speech 65 (2), DOI:10.1080/00335637909383466 .
  • Ryan, Halford Ross (1988), Franklin D. Roosevelt's Rhetorical Presidency, Greenwood Press .
  • Stelzner, Hermann G (1966), "'War Message,' December 8, 1941: An Approach to Language", Communication Monographs 33 (4), DOI:10.1080/03637756609375508 .
  • Statistical Abstract of the United States, Bureau of the Census, 1951, http://www2.census.gov/prod2/statcomp/documents/1946-01.pdf ; full of useful data
  • Historical Statistics of the United States: Colonial Times to 1970, Bureau of the Census, 1976 .
  • Cantril, Hadley; Strunk, Mildred, ur. (1951), Public Opinion, 1935–1946 , massive compilation of many public opinion polls from the USA.
  • Gallup, George Horace, ur. (1972), The Gallup Poll; Public Opinion, 1935–1971 , 3 vol, summarizes results of each poll as reported to newspapers.
  • Loewenheim, Francis L; Langley, Harold D, ur. (1975), Roosevelt and Churchill: Their Secret Wartime Correspondence .
  • Moley, Raymond (1939), After Seven Years  by key Brain Truster
  • Nixon, Edgar B, ur. (1969), Franklin D Roosevelt and Foreign Affairs  (3 vol), covers 1933–37. 2nd series 1937–39 available on microfiche and in a 14 vol print edition at some academic libraries.
  • Roosevelt, Franklin Delano (1945), Rosenman, Samuel Irving, ur., The Public Papers and Addresses of Franklin D. Roosevelt, 13 volumes .
  • Roosevelt, Franklin Delano (1946), Zevin, BD, ur., Nothing to Fear: The Selected Addresses of Franklin Delano Roosevelt, 1932–1945 .
  • Roosevelt, Franklin Delano (2005), Taylor, Myron C, ur., Wartime Correspondence Between President Roosevelt and Pope Pius XII, Kessinger Publishing, ISBN 1-4191-6654-9 .
  • Documentary History of the Franklin D. Roosevelt Administration , 20 vol. available in some large academic libraries.

Vanjske Veze[uredi - уреди]

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Prethodnik: Predsjednik Sjedinjenih Američkih Država
1933. - 1945.
Nasljednik:
Herbert Hoover
1929. - 1933.
Harry S. Truman
1945. - 1953.