Socijaldemokratija

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Crvena zastava, simbol radničkog i socijaldemokratskog pokreta
Crvena ruža, simbol demokracije i anti-autoritarnosti u načinu djelovanja protiv društvenih nepravdi[1][2][3]

Socijaldemokratija ili socijaldemokracija je politička filozofija koja je nastala u drugoj polovici 19. stoljeća kao struja u pokretu socijalne pravde i ljevice.[4][5][6] Danas se socijaldemokracija uobičajeno smiješta na lijevi centar političkog spektra.[7][8][9][10]

Izvorna socijaldemokracija je razvijala antikapitalistički program.[11][12][13][14] Ali, kroz vrijeme se okrenula političkom pragmatizmu.[15][16] Pragmatična socijaldemokracija se usredotočava samo na minimalni program, kojim u okviru ustanova predstavničke, parlamentarne demokracije i tržišnog kapitalističkog gospodarstva nastoji sprovoditi djelimične reforme radi stvaranja državnih propisa, programa i servisa koji bi trebali raditi na ublažavanju nepravdi koje nanosi neregulirani, liberalni model kapitalizma.[17][18][19][20][21][22] Praktično ostvarenje takvih reformi u okviru ustanova parlamentarne demokracije i tržišnog kapitalističkog gospodarstva uobičajeno se naziva socijalno odgovornom državom ili državom blagostanja.[23][24][25][26][27] Socijaldemokracija se smatra umjerenom strujom u suvremenom ljevičarskom pokretu.[28][29][30][31]

Neka obilježja socijaldemokracije:[32][33][34]

  • razvijanje prava i sloboda zapostavljenih i obespravljenih pojedinaca, društvenih skupina i slojeva;
  • razvijanje prava ljudi na rad, zdravstvenu skrb, obrazovanje i socijalnu skrb;
  • održivi gospodarski razvoj, uz razvijanje ravnomjernog razvoja urbanih i ruralnih područja;
  • afirmacija ravnopravnosti spolova;
  • razvijanje pluralističkog i solidarnog društva koje unapređuje kvalitetu života za sve radnice i radnike, te ugrožene slojeve;
  • unapređivanje uravnoteženoga lokalnog i regionalnog razvoja;
  • promoviranje mirnog i diplomatskog načina rješavanja sporova i sukoba;
  • korištenje demokratskih i nenasilnih parlamentarnih i izvanparlamentarnih oblika djelovanja i opiranje svim nedemokratskim, autoritarnim i totalitarnim oblicima djelovanja.

Umjerena ljevičarska stranka u matičnom toku države koja je zasnovana na parlamentarnoj demokraciji i tržišnom gospodarstvu, sa glasačkim tijelom kako u radničkoj klasi tako i u srednjoj klasi, mogla bi biti opisana kao socijaldemokratska stranka.[35][36] Dok bi stranka sa većim zahtjevima i ciljevima, koja ima glasačko tijelo među onim dijelom malobrojnije ali svjesnije radničke klase, fizičke i intelektualne, te sa historijom podrške i učešća u emancipacijskim i progresivnim pokretima, mogla biti opisana kao stranka radikalnije, nove ljevice.[37][38][39][40]

Socijaldemokratske stranke, kao i druge suvremene ljevičarske stranke uobičajeno ističu sljedeće principe:[41]

  • sloboda — ne samo ljudske slobode, već i sloboda od diskriminacije i sloboda od zavisnosti, kako od vlasnika sredstava za proizvodnju, tako i od nosilaca zloupotrebljavane političke moći;
  • jednakost — ne samo pred zakonom, već i ekonomska i društveno-kulturna jednakost, i jednake mogućnosti za sve uključujući i one sa fizičkim, mentalnim ili društvenim poteškoćama;
  • solidarnost — jedinstvo i suosjećanje prema žrtvama nepravde i nejednakosti.
Clement Attlee, socijaldemokrat i premijer Velike Britanije (1945-1951)
Willy Brandt, socijaldemokrat i kancelar Njemačke (1969-1974)
Olof Palme, socijaldemokrat i premijer Švedske (1969-1976 i 1982-1986)
Helen Clark, socijaldemokratkinja i premijerka Novog Zelanda (1999-2008)

Socijaldemokracija se opire svakom obliku autoritarnosti i jednostranačja.[42][43][44][45][46][47][48][49] Stoga, socijaldemokracija se opire konceptima jednostranačke vladavine takozvanih komunističkih partija 20. stoljeća.[50][51][52]

Popis nekih socijaldemokratskih stranaka[uredi - уреди | uredi izvor]

Popis nekih socijaldemokrata[uredi - уреди | uredi izvor]

Vidi još[uredi - уреди | uredi izvor]

Izvori[uredi - уреди | uredi izvor]

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