Nauka

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Skala Univerzuma – maprana prema granama nauke

Nauka ili znanost (lat.: scientia = znanje; grč.: λoγοs – logos = nauka, znanje, znanost, učenje) je sistem sređenih isistematiziranih znanja o nama i (matrijalnom i nematerijalnom) svijetu koji nas okružuje. T o je obimna i opsežna skupina informacija i o nekom subjektu, ali se ta riječ posebno koristila za informacije o fizičkom univerzumu. Kako se znanje povećavalo, pojedine metode su se dokazale pouzdanije nego neke druge, i danas su naučne metode standard za nauku. To uključuje korištenje pažljivog posmatranja, eksperimente, mjerenja, matematiku, i ponavljanje.

  • Prema standardnim rječnicima,[1] nauka je sistematski poduhvat koji stvara i organizira znanja u obliku objašnjenja i teorijskih predviđanja o Univerzumu (svemiru).[2]
  • Moderna nauka je otkriće, kao i izum. To je otkriće da priroda općenito djeluje dovoljno ustaljeno da se može opisati zakonima, čak i matematičkim. Naučnim istraživanjima je potrebno tehničko osmišljavanje, apstrakcije, aparati i organizacija za izlaganje rezultata koje liči na pravne deskripcije.[3][4]
  • U starijim i usko povezanim značenjima, nauka se također odnosi na takav korpus znanja sebi koji se može racionalno objasniti i pouzdano primijeniti. Djelatnik u oblasti nauke je poznat kao naučnik.

Da bi se uzeo u razmatranje sa naučnog stanovišta, objekat posmatranja mora biti podvrgnut ponovljenim testiranjima od strane neovisnih posmatrača. Korištenje naučnih metoda za dostizanje novih otkrića se naziva naučno istraživanje, i ljudi koji rade ta istraživanja se zovu naučnici. U užem smislu, nauka se naziva eksperimentalnom, dok je svrha primijenjene nauke, odnosno inžinjerstva, praktično upotrebljavanje naučnog znanja. Naučne hipoteze su edukovani prijedlozi objašnjenja fenomena ili razumne pretpostavke o prirodi univerzuma.

Naučna teorija je hipoteza koja je potvrđena ponovljenim promatranjima i mjerenjima. Naučne teorije su obično date kao matematičke forme, i uvijek su podložne odbacivanju ako ih budući eksperimenti opovrgnu. U modernom svijetu, naučna istraživanja su najvažnije aktivnosti svih razvijenih država, i od naučnika se očekuje da objave svoja otkrića u referentnim časopisima, naučnim periodicima gdje suci provjeravaju fakte u članku, prije nego što se on objavi. Čak i poslije objavljivanja, nove naučne ideje nisu općenito prihvaćene dok se rad ne ponovi.

Naučna pismenost je sposobnost opće populacije da razumije osnovne koncepte koji se odnose na nauku.

Istorija[uredi - уреди]

Animacija koja prikazuje kretanje kontinenata od separacije Pangea do današnjeg dana.

Nauka u širem smislu je postojala pre moderne ere, i u mnogim istorijskim civilizacijama.[5] Moderna nauka se razlikuje u svom pristupu i uspešna je u pruivođenju rezultata: 'modernna nauka' definiše ono što je nauka u najstrožijem smislu reči.[6] Dalek pre moderne ere, još jedna prekretna tačka je bio razvoj klasične prirodne filozofije u drevnom grčkom svetu.

Prefilozofiska istorija[uredi - уреди]

Nauka u svom originalnom smislu je reč za tip znanja (Latinski scientia, Starogrčki jezik epistemē), pre nego specijalizovana reč za potragu za takvim znanjem. In particular it is one of the types of knowledge which people can communicate to each other and share. For example, knowledge about the working of natural things was gathered long before recorded history and led to the development of complex abstract thinking. This is shown by the construction of complex calendars, techniques for making poisonous plants edible, and buildings such as the pyramids. However no consistent conscientious distinction was made between knowledge of such things which are true in every community and other types of communal knowledge, such as mythologies and legal systems.

Filozofske studije prirode[uredi - уреди]

Kukuruz, je biljka sa velikim zrnima koju su domestikavali urođenici Mezoamerike u praistorijska vremena.

Before the invention or discovery of the concept of "nature" (Ancient Greek phusis), by the Pre-Socratic philosophers, the same words tend to be used to describe the natural "way" in which a plant grows,[7] and the "way" in which, for example, one tribe worships a particular god. For this reason it is claimed these men were the first philosophers in the strict sense, and also the first people to clearly distinguish "nature" and "convention".[8] Science was therefore distinguished as the knowledge of nature, and the things which are true for every community, and the name of the specialized pursuit of such knowledge was philosophy — the realm of the first philosopher-physicists. They were mainly speculators or theorists, particularly interested in astronomy. In contrast, trying to use knowledge of nature to imitate nature (artifice or technology, Greek technē) was seen by classical scientists as a more appropriate interest for lower class artisans.[9]

Filozofski zaokret ka ljudskim pitanjima[uredi - уреди]

Aristotle, 384 BC – 322 BC, - one of the early figures in the development of the scientific method.[10]

A major turning point in the history of early philosophical science was the controversial but successful attempt by Socrates to apply philosophy to the study of human things, including human nature, the nature of political communities, and human knowledge itself. He criticized the older type of study of physics as too purely speculative, and lacking in self-criticism. He was particularly concerned that some of the early physicists treated nature as if it could be assumed that it had no intelligent order, explaining things merely in terms of motion and matter. The study of human things had been the realm of mythology and tradition, and Socrates was executed.[11] Aristotle later created a less controversial systematic programme of Socratic philosophy, which was teleological, and human-centred. He rejected many of the conclusions of earlier scientists. For example in his physics the sun goes around the earth, and many things have it as part of their nature that they are for humans. Each thing has a formal cause and final cause and a role in the rational cosmic order. Motion and change is described as the actualization of potentials already in things, according to what types of things they are. While the Socratics insisted that philosophy should be used to consider the practical question of the best way to live for a human being (a study Aristotle divided into ethics and political philosophy), they did not argue for any other types of applied science.

Aristotle maintained the sharp distinction between science and the practical knowledge of artisans, treating theoretical speculation as the highest type of human activity, practical thinking about good living as something less lofty, and the knowledge of artisans as something only suitable for the lower classes. In contrast to modern science, Aristotle's influential emphasis was upon the "theoretical" steps of deducing universal rules from raw data, and did not treat the gathering of experience and raw data as part of science itself.[12]

Srednjevekovna nauka[uredi - уреди]

De potentiis anime sensitive, Gregor Reisch (1504) Margarita philosophica. Medieval science mooted a ventricle of the brain as the location for our common sense,[13] where the forms from our sensory systems commingled.
Ibn al-Haytham's "approach was essentially hypothetico-deductive".[14]

During late antiquity and the early Middle Ages, the Aristotelian approach to inquiries on natural phenomena was used. Some ancient knowledge was lost, or in some cases kept in obscurity, during the fall of the Roman Empire and periodic political struggles. However, the general fields of science, or natural philosophy as it was called, and much of the general knowledge from the ancient world remained preserved though the works of the early Latin encyclopedists like Isidore of Seville. Also, in the Byzantine empire, many Greek science texts were preserved in Syriac translations done by groups such as Nestorians and Monophysites.[15] Many of these were translated later on into Arabic under the Caliphate, during which many types of classical learning were preserved and in some cases improved upon.[15][16] The House of Wisdom was established in Abbasid-era Baghdad, Iraq.[17] It is considered to have been a major intellectual center, during the Islamic Golden Age, where Muslim scholars such as al-Kindi and Ibn Sahl in Baghdad, and Ibn al-Haytham in Cairo, flourished from the ninth to the thirteenth centuries, until the Mongol sack of Baghdad. Ibn al-Haytham, known later to the West as Alhazen, furthered the Aristotelian viewpoint,[18] by emphasizing experimental data and the reproducibility of its results.[nb 1] In the later medieval period, as demand for translations grew, for example from the Toledo School of Translators, Western Europeans began collecting texts written not only in Latin, but also Latin translations from Greek, Arabic, and Hebrew. The texts of Aristotle, Ptolemy,[19] and Euclid, preserved in the Houses of Wisdom, were sought amongst Catholic scholars. In Europe, Alhazen's De Aspectibus directly influenced Roger Bacon (13th century) in England, who argued for more experimental science, as demonstrated by Alhazen. By the late Middle Ages, a synthesis of Catholicism and Aristotelianism known as Scholasticism was flourishing in Western Europe, which had become a new geographic center of science, but all aspects of scholasticism were criticized in the 15th and 16th centuries.

Znanstveni modeli, teorije, i zakoni[uredi - уреди]

Wikicitati „Svi metodi, sve pretpostavke našeg sadašnjeg naučnog duha, bili su tokom hiljada godina izloženi najdubljem preziru: ukoliko ste tragali, za njima bili ste isključeni iz svakog opticaja sa "poštenim" ljudima — važili za "neprijatelja Boga", za onoga koji prezire istinu, za "opsednutog".[20]

Osnovna klasifikacija[uredi - уреди]

Naučna polja su uobičajeno podijeljena na dvije osnovne grupe: prirodne nauke, koje proučavaju prirodne pojave (uključujući i život u biološkom smislu) i socijalne nauke, koje proučavaju ljudsko ponašanje i društva.

Matematika, koja je klasificirana kao formalna nauka, ima i sličnosti i razlike sa prirodnim i društvenim naukama. Formalna nauka je vitalna za empirijske nauke. Velika dostignuća u formalnim naukama obično dovode i do velkih dostignuća u empirijskim naukama. Formalne nauke su ključne u formiranju hipoteza, teorija i zakona, kako u otkrićima, tako i u opisivanju kako nešto radi (u prirodnim naukama), i u saznavanju kako ljudi misle i djeluju (u socijalnim naukama).

Dok su empirijska istraživanja prirode opisana čak u antičko doba (npr. od strane Aristotela, Teofrasta i Plinija starijeg), naučne metode se koriste od Srednjeg vijeka (npr. od strane Al-Hejsema, El-Birunija i Roger Bacon-a), pojava moderne nauke se općenito veže za moderni period poznat kao Naučna revolucija 16. i 17. vijeka.

Podjela prema preporuci "Organizacije za ekonomsku kooperaciju i razvitak" (OECD)

Prirodne znanosti

Tehničke znanosti i tehnologija

Medicinske znanosti

Poljoprivredne nauke

Društvene nauke

Humanističke nauke

Napomene[uredi - уреди]

  1. *"The two greatest mathematical scientists, in the half-century to follow the translation movement [from Greek to Arabic], al-Biruni and Ibn al-Haytham, raised ongoing enrichment [of science] to another plane, no longer mixed with translation activity of any kind." p.55 — H. Floris Cohen (2010) How modern science came into the world: four civilizations, one 17th century breakthrough
    • "[Ibn al-Haytham] followed Ptolemy's bridge building ... into a grand synthesis of light and vision. Part of his effort consisted in devising ranges of experiments, of a kind probed before but now undertaken on larger scale."—H. Floris Cohen (2010):p.59
    • [Ibn al-Haytham] (Alhacen) De Aspectibus, see for example Book I, [6.38] "And all these points become clear with experimentation." Smith 2001:[6.38]p.367
    • [Ibn al-Haytham] (Alhacen) De Aspectibus, see for example Book I, [6.36] "And if this phenomenon is experimentally scrutinized with great care, the result will be found to be what we have claimed." Smith 2001:[6.36]p.366
    • El-Bizri, Nader, "A Philosophical Perspective on Alhazen's Optics", Arabic Sciences and Philosophy 15 (2005-08-05), 189–218
    • Haq, Syed (2009). "Science in Islam". Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages. ISSN 1703-7603. pristupljeno na 2014-10-22. 
    • Lindberg 1976:pp.60–67
    • Sabra, A. I. (1989). The Optics of Ibn al-Haytham. Books I–II–III: On Direct Vision. London: The Warburg Institute, University of London. ISBN 0-85481-072-2. :pp.25–29

Reference[uredi - уреди]

  1. "science". Online Etymology Dictionary. http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=science&allowed_in_frame=0. pristupljeno 2014-09-20. 
  2. Wilson E. O. (1998): Consilience: The unity of knowledge, Vintage Books, New York,ISBN 0-679-45077-7.
  3. Heilbron J. L., Ed (2003): The Oxford Companion to the history of modern science. Oxford University Press, New York, ISBN 0-19-511229-6.
  4. "science". Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Merriam-Webster, Inc. Retrieved 2011-10-16. "3 a:Nauka je znanje ili sistem znanja koji pokriva opće istine ili opće zakonitosti koje je moguće testirati primjenom naučnnog metoda
    • B, kao znanje ili takav sistem znanja koja se bave fizičkom svijetu i njegovim pojavama" 
  5. "The historian ... requires a very broad definition of "science" — one that ... mawill help us to understand the modern scientific enterprise. We need to be broad and inclusive, rather than narrow and exclusive ... and we should expect that the farther back we go [in time] the broader we will need to be." — David Pingree (1992), "Hellenophilia versus the History of Science" Isis 83 554–63, as cited on p.3, David C. Lindberg (2007), The beginnings of Western science: the European Scientific tradition in philosophical, religious, and institutional context, Second ed. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press ISBN 978-0-226-48205-7
  6. Heilbron & 2003 p.vii
  7. See the quotation in Homer (8th century BCE) Odyssey 10.302–3
  8. "Progress or Return" in An Introduction to Political Philosophy: Ten Essays by Leo Strauss. (Expanded version of Political Philosophy: Six Essays by Leo Strauss, 1975.) Ed. Hilail Gilden. Detroit: Wayne State UP, 1989.
  9. Strauss and Cropsey eds. History of Political Philosophy, Third edition, p.209.
  10. "The Origins of Science". Scientific American Frontiers.
  11. Plato, Apology 30e
  12. "... [A] man knows a thing scientifically when he possesses a conviction arrived at in a certain way, and when the first principles on which that conviction rests are known to him with certainty—for unless he is more certain of his first principles than of the conclusion drawn from them he will only possess the knowledge in question accidentally." — Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics 6 (H. Rackham, ed.) Aristot. Nic. Eth. 1139b
  13. Smith, A. Mark (June 2004), "What is the History of Medieval Optics Really About?", Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 148 (2) :p.189
  14. Smith 2001 pp.cxv-cxvi via JSTOR
  15. 15.0 15.1 Grant, Edward (2007). A History of Natural Philosophy: From the Ancient World to the Nineteenth Century. Cambridge University Press. str. 62–67. ISBN 978-0-521-68957-1. 
  16. Alhacen had access to the optics books of Euclid and Ptolemy, as is shown by the title of his lost work A Book in which I have Summarized the Science of Optics from the Two Books of Euclid and Ptolemy, to which I have added the Notions of the First Discourse which is Missing from Ptolemy's Book From Ibn Abi Usaibia's catalog, as cited in (Smith 2001):91(vol.1),p.xv
  17. The ʿAbbāsid Caliphate. Encyclopædia Britannica.
  18. A brief overview can be found at Smith, A. Mark (1981), "Getting the Big Picture in Perspectivist Optics" Isis 72(4) (Dec., 1981). via JSTOR:p.728
  19. The translator, Gerard of Cremona (c. 1114–87), inspired by his love of the Almagest, came to Toledo, where he knew he could find the Almagest in Arabic. There he found Arabic books of every description, and learned Arabic in order to translate these books into Latin, being aware of 'the poverty of the Latins'. —As cited by Charles Burnett (2001) "The Coherence of the Arabic-Latin Translation Program in Toledo in the Twelfth Century", pp. 250, 255, & 257, Science in Context 14(1/2), 249–288 (2001). DOI: 10.1017/0269889701000096
  20. Friedrich Nietzsche - Antikrist

Literatura[uredi - уреди]

Vanjske veze[uredi - уреди]

  • "GCSE Science textbook". Wikibooks.org

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