Istorija Nemačke

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Nemački jezik i „germanizam“ postoje više od hiljadu godina, ali je država po imenu Nemačka kao moderna nacionalna država formirana tek 1871. godine, kada je Pruska predvodila nemačke države do pobede nad Francuskom. Tada je nastao drugi nemački Rajh (nem. Reich), obično prepoznatljiv kao Carstvo.

Prvi rajh, poznatiji kao Sveto rimsko carstvo Nemačke nacije, je nastao podelom Karolinškog carstva (843), koga je ranije osnovao Karlo Veliki. Carstvo je trajalo sve do 1806. Tokom ovih hiljadu godina, Nemci su uspešno proširili svoj uticaj na istok uz pomoć Katoličke crkve, Tevtonskog viteškog reda i Hanzeatske lige.

Godine 1530, pokušaj protestantske reformacije Katoličke crkve je propao, što je dovelo do formiranja nove, Protestantske crkve, koja je postala nova zvanična religija u mnogim nemačkim državama. Ova događanja su dovela do Tridesetogodišnjeg rata (1618), koji je, kada se završio Vestfalskim mirom (1648), učinio da Nemačka postane ekonomski iscrpljena i politički nestabilna. Ovakva situacija je onemogućila da Nemačka ponudi efikasan otpor Napoleonu i Sveto rimsko carstvo je bilo ukinuto 1806. Posle pada Napoleona sklopljena je Nemačka konfederacija (-{Deutscher Bund)}-, gde je glavnu reč imala Austrija. Konfederacija se sastojala od 39 malih država.

Ambiciozni premijer Pruske, Oto fon Bizmark, je iskoristio težnje za nacionalnim ujedinjenjem da veštom unutrašnjom i spoljnom politikom nametne dominaciju Pruske monarhije. Bizmark je bio poznat kao „kulturni borac“ protiv katoličanstva i borac za socijalne reforme.

Posle francuskog poraza u Francusko-pruskom ratu (1870.), Drugi rajh je proglašen u Versaju, 18. januara 1871.

Osnivanje moderne Nemačke, Versaj, 1871.

Međutim, u Prvom svetskom ratu (1914—1918), kada je invazija na Francusku bila glavni cilj, na kraju je pobedila Francuska. Time je okončan Drugi nemački rajh, kada je nemački car Viljem II bio prinuđen da abdicira.

Posle revolucije i odbacivanja monarhije, konstituisana je demokratska Vajmarska Republika. Veliki ekonomski problemi Nemačke izazvani Velikom depresijom i diktatima Versajskog mira, doveli su do odbacivanja demokratije od strane i levo i desno orijentisanih nemačkih građana.

Nacistička Nemačka[uredi - уреди | uredi izvor]

Glavni članak: Nacistička Nemačka

Na dvaput održanim izborima 1932, Nacisti su dobili 37,2% glasova u julu, a 33% u novembru. 30. januara 1933, Adolf Hitler je imenovan za kancelara Nemačke, a 23. marta 1933. godine nemački parlament je ukinuo ustav Vajmarske Republike. Treći rajh je trajao od 1933. do 1945. i bio je utemeljen na nacional-socijalizmu, odnosno nacizmu. 1934. Hitler je preuzeo apsolutnu kontrolu nad vladom, kada je de fakto postao i predsednik Nemačke. Nakon aneksije Austije (1938), politika anektiranja susednih teritorija, dovela je do Drugog svetskog rata, koji je u Evropi otpočeo 1. septembra 1939. kada je Nemačka okupirala Poljsku. Nemačka i njeni saveznici su imali veliku i dobro kontrolisanu vojsku koja preuzela kontrolu nad gotovo celom teritorijom Evrope.

Posle operacije Barbarosa (napada na Sovjetski Savez) 22. juna 1941. otvoren je drugi front na istoku, kao i napada na Sjedinjene Države, kada je prekršen dogovor o nenapadanju Nemačke na SAD, od strane Hitlera (11. decembar 1941). Od 1941. do 1945. nacistička Nemačka, uz pomoć susednih kolaboracionista, sistematski je ubila 6 miliona Jevreja u Holokaustu. Režim je isto tako ubijao Slovene, Rome, homoseksualce i mentalno zaostale osobe i druge nesposobne ljude, ali i politički nepodobne građane (naročito komuniste i socijaliste, ali i religiozne vođe). 8. maja 1945. godine Nemačka je kapitulirala posle okupacije Berlina od strane sovjetske Crvene armije. Pre ulaska ruskih trupa u Berlin, Hitler je izvršio samoubistvo.

Posleratna Nemačka[uredi - уреди | uredi izvor]

Rat je rezultovao velikim gubitkom teritorije, etnički je očišćeno 15 miliona Nemaca sa tih prostora, 45-godišnju okupaciju tokom koje je nekadašnja teritorija Rajha podeljena u Austriju, Zapadnu Nemačku i Istočnu Nemačku. 1948. i 1949. tokom Berlinske blokade, saveznička vojska dopremala je hranu i sirovine u Zapadni Berlin, koji je tokom Hladnog rata posao enklava okružena sovjetskom gvozdenom zavesom.

Građani Zapadnog Berlina su postali proamerički orijentisani. To je bio rezultat mnogih činjenica, uključujući i jak nemački antikomunizam, američki Maršalov plan za rekonstrukciju Evrope posle rata, osnivanje Evropske unije, i generalno podržavanje prisustva zapadne vojske u Zapadnom Berlinu. Rekonstruisana Zapadna Nemačka je ponovo postala svetska najveća ekonomska sila.

Sovjeti su kontrolisali Nemačku Demokratsku Republiku, koja je bila jedna u nizu socijalističkih satelita Sovjetskog Saveza i članica Varšavskog pakta, sa kontrolom slobodnog kretanja njenih stanovnika. Iznenadno, 13. avgusta 1961. godine, Istočna Nemačka je postavila Berlinski zid između Istočnog i Zapadnog Berlina, i potpuno zatvorila granicu prema Zapadnoj Nemačkoj što je onemogućilo normalno cirkulisanje ljudi. Vili Brant, zapadnoberlinski gradonačelnik i potonji zapadnonemački kancelar, su pokušali da smire tenzije, ali njegovo praktično priznavanje gubitka istorijske Istočne Nemačke je dovelo do kontroverzi, neki Nemci su smatrali da je izdajnik, dok su mnogi drugi (naročito mladi ljudi) mislili da je heroj.

Posle pada komunizma u Evropi, Nemačka se ponovo ujedinila (1990), što je dovelo do ekonomskih problema koji se osećaju i danas. Berlin je ponovo postao glavni grad. Porodice, koje su bile dugi niz godina rastavljene, ponovo su se spojile. Kao deo postkomunističkog procesa, otvoreni su dosijei tajne policije.

Zajedno sa Francuskom, nova Nemačka igra glavnu ulogu u Evropskoj uniji. Nemačka je država koja se zalaže za zajedničku evropsku politiku, odbranu i sigurnost. Kancelar se konstantno poziva na sastanke Saveta bezbednosti Ujedinjenih nacija.


Literatura[uredi - уреди | uredi izvor]

Pregledi[uredi - уреди | uredi izvor]

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Srednji vek[uredi - уреди | uredi izvor]

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Reformacija[uredi - уреди | uredi izvor]

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  • Junghans, Helmar. Martin Luther: Exploring His Life and Times, 1483–1546. (book plus CD ROM) (1998)
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Period do 1815[uredi - уреди | uredi izvor]

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1815–1890[uredi - уреди | uredi izvor]

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  • Steinberg, Jonathan. Bismarck: A Life (2011), a major scholarly biography
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1890–1933[uredi - уреди | uredi izvor]

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  • Mommsen, Wolfgang J. Imperial Germany 1867–1918: Politics, Culture and Society in an Authoritarian State (1995)
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  • Watson, Alexander. Ring of Steel: Germany and Austria-Hungary in World War I (2014), excerpt

Naci era[uredi - уреди | uredi izvor]

  • Burleigh, Michael. The Third Reich: A New History. (2000). 864 pp. Stress on antisemitism;
  • Evans, Richard J. The Coming of the Third Reich: A History. 2004. 622 pp., a major scholarly survey; The Third Reich in Power: 1933–1939. (2005). 800 pp.; The Third Reich at war 1939–1945 (2009)
  • Overy, Richard. The Dictators: Hitler's Germany and Stalin's Russia (2004). comparative history
  • Roderick, Stacke. Hitler's Germany: Origins, Interpretations, Legacies (1999)
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  • Friedlander, Saul. Nazi Germany and the Jews, 1933–1945 (2009) abridged version of the standard two volume history
  • Kershaw, Ian. Hitler, 1889–1936: Hubris. vol. 1. 1999. 700 pp. ; vol 2: Hitler, 1936–1945: Nemesis. 2000. 832 pp.; the leading scholarly biography.
  • Koonz, Claudia. Mothers in the Fatherland: Women, Family Life, and Nazi Ideology, 1919–1945. (1986). 640 pp. The major study
  • Speer, Albert. Inside the Third Reich: Memoirs 1970.
  • Stibbe, Matthew. Women in the Third Reich, 2003, 208 pp.
  • Tooze, Adam. The Wages of Destruction: The Making and Breaking of the Nazi Economy (2007), highly influential new study; online review by Richard Tilly; summary of reviews
  • Thomsett, Michael C. The German Opposition to Hitler: The Resistance, the Underground, and Assassination Plots, 1938–1945 (2nd ed 2007) 278 pages

Nakon 1945[uredi - уреди | uredi izvor]

  • Bark, Dennis L., and David R. Gress. A History of West Germany Vol 1: From Shadow to Substance, 1945–1963 (1992); ISBN 978-0-631-16787-7; vol 2: Democracy and Its Discontents 1963–1988 (1992) ISBN 978-0-631-16788-4
  • Berghahn, Volker Rolf. Modern Germany: society, economy, and politics in the twentieth century (1987) ACLS E-book online
  • Hanrieder, Wolfram F. Germany, America, Europe: Forty Years of German Foreign Policy (1989) ISBN 0-300-04022-9
  • Jarausch, Konrad H.After Hitler: Recivilizing Germans, 1945–1995 (2008)
  • Junker, Detlef, ed. The United States and Germany in the Era of the Cold War (2 vol 2004), 150 short essays by scholars covering 1945–1990 excerpt and text search vol 1; excerpt and text search vol 2
  • Main, Steven J. "The Soviet Occupation of Germany. Hunger, Mass Violence and the Struggle for Peace, 1945–1947." Europe-Asia Studies (2014) 66#8 pp: 1380-1382.
  • Schwarz, Hans-Peter. Konrad Adenauer: A German Politician and Statesman in a Period of War, Revolution and Reconstruction (2 vol 1995) excerpt and text search vol 2; also full text vol 1; and full text vol 2
  • Smith, Gordon, ed, Developments in German Politics (1992) ISBN 0-8223-1266-2, broad survey of reunified nation
  • Weber, Jurgen. Germany, 1945–1990 (Central European University Press, 2004) online edition

Primarni izvori[uredi - уреди | uredi izvor]

  • Beate Ruhm Von Oppen, ed. Documents on Germany under Occupation, 1945-1954 (Oxford University Press, 1955) online

GDR[uredi - уреди | uredi izvor]

  • Fulbrook, Mary. Anatomy of a Dictatorship: Inside the GDR, 1949–1989 (1998)
  • Fulbrook, Mary. The People's State: East German Society from Hitler to Honecker (2008) excerpt and text search
  • Harsch, Donna. Revenge of the Domestic: Women, the Family, and Communism in the German Democratic Republic (2008)
  • Jarausch, Konrad H.. and Eve Duffy. Dictatorship As Experience: Towards a Socio-Cultural History of the GDR (1999)
  • Jarausch, Konrad H., and Volker Gransow, eds. Uniting Germany: Documents and Debates, 1944–1993 (1994), primary sources on reunification
  • Pence, Katherine, and Paul Betts, eds. Socialist Modern: East German Everyday Culture and Politics (2008) excerpt and text search
  • Pritchard, Gareth. The Making of the GDR, 1945–53 (2004)
  • Ross, Corey. The East German Dictatorship: Problems and Perspectives in the Interpretation of the GDR (2002)
  • Steiner, André. The Plans That Failed: An Economic History of East Germany, 1945–1989 (2010)

Istoriografija[uredi - уреди | uredi izvor]

  • Berghahn, Volker R., and Simone Lassig, eds. Biography between Structure and Agency: Central European Lives in International Historiography (2008)
  • Chickering, Roger, ed. Imperial Germany: A Historiographical Companion (1996), 552pp; 18 essays by specialists;
  • Evans, Richard J. Rereading German History: From Unification to Reunification, 1800–1996 (1997) online edition
  • Hagemann, Karen, and Jean H. Quataert, eds. Gendering Modern German History: Rewriting Historiography (2008)
  • Hagemann, Karen. "From the Margins to the Mainstream? Women's and Gender History in Germany," Journal of Women's History, (2007) 19#1 pp 193–199
  • Jarausch, Konrad H., and Michael Geyer, eds. Shattered Past: Reconstructing German Histories (2003)
  • Klessmann, Christoph. The Divided Past: Rewriting Post-War German History (2001) online edition
  • Lehmann, Hartmut, and James Van Horn Melton, eds. Paths of Continuity: Central European Historiography from the 1930s to the 1950s (2003)
  • Perkins, J. A. "Dualism in German Agrarian Historiography, Comparative Studies in Society and History, Apr 1986, Vol. 28 Issue 2, pp 287–330,
  • Stuchtey, Benedikt, and Peter Wende, eds. British and German Historiography, 1750–1950: Traditions, Perceptions, and Transfers (2000)

Vanjske veze[uredi - уреди | uredi izvor]