Seldžučka Monarhija

Izvor: Wikipedia
Upozorenje: Nije specificirana vrijednost za "ime_genitiv"
Büyük Selçuklu Devleti
دولت سلجوقیان
Dawlat-i Saljūqiān
Seldžučka Monarhija
? Ghaznavid Empire 975 - 1187 (AD).PNG
1037–1194 ?
Položaj
Seldžučka Monarhija na svom vrhuncu 1092,
poslije smrti Malik-šaha I
Glavni grad Nišapur
(1037–1043)
Raj
(1043–1051)
Isfahan
(1051–1118)
Hamadan, Zapadna prijestolnica (1118–1194)
Merv, Istočna prijestolnica (1118–1153)
Vlast monarhija
Sultan
 - 1037–1063 Togrul I (prvi)
 - 1174–1194 Toghrul III (posljednji)[1][2]
Historija
 - Togrul osniva monarhiju
 - osvajanje od strane Horezmijske Monarhije[3]
Površina
 - 1080 proc. 3,900,000 km? (1,505,798 sq mi)
Prethodi
Slijedi
Ghaznavid Empire 975 - 1187 (AD).PNG Gaznavudsko Carstvo
Horezmsko Carstvo Khwarezmian Empire 1190 - 1220 (AD).PNG
Rimski Sultanat Blank.png
Ajubidska dinastija Blank.png
Atabezi Azerbejdžana Blank.png
Buridska dinastija Blank.png
Zengidska dinastija Blank.png
Danišmendi Blank.png
Artukidska dinastija Blank.png
Saltukidi Blank.png
Danas dio

Seldžučka Monarhija (perzijski: دولت سلجوقیان‎; moderni turski: Büyük Selçuklu Devleti) bila je srednjovjekovna tursko-perzijska[4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11] muslimanska (sunitska) monarhija čija je vladarska dinastija nastala od Qynyq ogranka turkijskih Oguza[12], a koja je postojala na prostoru Bliskog Istoka i Centralne Azije od 1037. do 1077. nakon čega se raspala na nekoliko država nasljednica. Na vrhuncu svoje moći ova se monarhija prostirala od centralnoazijskih stepa na sjeveru, pa do Perzijskog zaljeva na jugu; odnosno od planina Hindukuša na istoku do Anadolije na zapadu, zahvaćajući sve ili najveći dio područja nekadašnje Perzijske ili Seleukidske Monarhije, odnosno muslimanskog kalifata. Seldžuci su ta područja osvojili nakon što su iz svoje postojbine oko Aralskog mora prodrli u područje Horasana, potom Perzije te osvojili istočnu Anadoliju.

Seldžučku državu je godine 1037. Togrul nakon ranijih pokušaja Seldžuk-bega, osnivača Seldžučke dinastije i velikodostojnika turkijske plemenske konfederacije Oguz Jabgu po kome je dinastija dobile ime. Seldžuci su imali važnu ulogu kako u nastojanju da se ponovno politički ujedinili islamski svijet na istoku, tako i otporu križarima u Prvom i Drugom križarskom ratu, a u čemu su imali promjenljive rezultate. U 12. vijeku je Carstvo počelo slabiti i raspadati se, da bi bilo uništeno od Horezmijaca 1194. godine. Njegovi ostaci su preživjeli u obliku turskih država u Anadoliji, među koje spada Rimski Sultanat, te entiteti od kojih će se razviti kasnije Osmansko Carstvo.

Izvori[uredi - уреди]

  1. A New General Biographical Dictionary, Vol.2, Ed. Hugh James Rose, (London, 1853), 214.
  2. Grousset, Rene, The Empire of the Steppes, (New Brunswick:Rutgers University Press, 1988), 167.
  3. Grousset, Rene, The Empire of the Steppes, (New Brunswick:Rutgers University Press, 1988),159,161; "In 1194, Togrul III would succumb to the onslaught of the Khwarizmian Turks, who were destined at last to succeed the Seljuks to the empire of the Middle East."
  4. Aḥmad of Niǧde's "al-Walad al-Shafīq" and the Seljuk Past, A. C. S. Peacock, Anatolian Studies, Vol. 54, (2004), 97; With the growth of Seljuk power in Rum, a more highly developed Muslim cultural life, based on the Persianate culture of the Great Seljuk court, was able to take root in Anatolia.
  5. Meisami, Julie Scott, Persian Historiography to the End of the Twelfth Century, (Edinburgh University Press, 1999), 143; Nizam al-Mulk also attempted to organise the Saljuq administration according to the Persianate Ghaznavid model..
  6. M.A. Amir-Moezzi, "Shahrbanu", Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, (LINK): "... here one might bear in mind that non-Persian dynasties such as the Ghaznavids, Saljuqs and Ilkhanids were rapidly to adopt the Persian language and have their origins traced back to the ancient kings of Persia rather than to Turkmen heroes or Muslim saints ..."
  7. Josef W. Meri, "Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia", Routledge, 2005, p. 399
  8. Michael Mandelbaum, "Central Asia and the World", Council on Foreign Relations (May 1994), p. 79
  9. Jonathan Dewald, "Europe 1450 to 1789: Encyclopedia of the Early Modern World", Charles Scribner's Sons, 2004, p. 24: "Turcoman armies coming from the East had driven the Byzantines out of much of Asia Minor and established the Persianized sultanate of the Seljuks."
  10. Grousset, Rene, The Empire of the Steppes, (Rutgers University Press, 1991), 161,164; "..renewed the Seljuk attempt to found a great Turko-Persian empire in eastern Iran..", "It is to be noted that the Seljuks, those Turkomans who became sultans of Persia, did not Turkify Persia-no doubt because they did not wish to do so. On the contrary, it was they who voluntarily became Persians and who, in the manner of the great old Sassanid kings, strove to protect the Iranian populations from the plundering of Ghuzz bands and save Iranian culture from the Turkoman menace."
  11. Possessors and possessed: museums, archaeology, and the visualization of history in the late Ottoman Empire; By Wendy M. K. Shaw; Published by University of California Press, 2003, ISBN 0520233352, 9780520233355; p. 5.
    • Jackson, P. (2002). "Review: The History of the Seljuq Turkmens: The History of the Seljuq Turkmens". Journal of Islamic Studies 13 (1): 75–76 (Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies). DOI:10.1093/jis/13.1.75. 
    • Bosworth, C. E. (2001). Notes on Some Turkish Names in Abu 'l-Fadl Bayhaqi's Tarikh-i Mas'udi. Oriens, Vol. 36, 2001 (2001), pp. 299-313.
    • Dani, A. H., Masson, V. M. (Eds), Asimova, M. S. (Eds), Litvinsky, B. A. (Eds), Boaworth, C. E. (Eds). (1999). History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers (Pvt. Ltd).
    • Hancock, I. (2006). ON ROMANI ORIGINS AND IDENTITY. The Romani Archives and Documentation Center. The University of Texas at Austin.
    • Asimov, M. S., Bosworth, C. E. (eds.). (1998). History of Civilizations of Central Asia, Vol. IV: The Age of Achievement: AD 750 to the End of the Fifteenth Century, Part One: The Historical, Social and Economic Setting. Multiple History Series. Paris: UNESCO Publishing.
    • Dani, A. H., Masson, V. M. (Eds), Asimova, M. S. (Eds), Litvinsky, B. A. (Eds), Boaworth, C. E. (Eds). (1999). History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers (Pvt. Ltd).

Literatura[uredi - уреди]

  • Previte-Orton, C. W. (1971). The Shorter Cambridge Medieval History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 
  • Tetley, G. E. (2008). The Ghaznavid and Seljuk Turks: Poetry as a Source for Iranian History. Abingdon. ISBN 9780415431194.