Filogenija pterosaura

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Filogenija pterosaura zahtijeva razna filogenetska stabla koja su se koristila za klasifikaciju pterosaura i različita viđenja tih životinja. Filogenija pterosaura trenutno je predmet mnogih sporova, a dolje je predstavljeno nekoliko hipoteza.

Unwin (2003)[uredi - уреди | uredi izvor]

Matrica obuhvata 19 grupa pterosaura (od kojih je većina iznad razine vrste) kao i jednu vanjsku grupu (Euparkeria capensis). Taksoni su kodirani prema 60 osobina.

Pterosauria 

Preondactylus


 Macronychoptera 

Dimorphodontidae


 Caelidracones 

Anurognathidae


 Lonchognatha 

Campylognathoididae


 Breviquartossa 
 Rhamphorhynchidae 

Rhamphorhynchinae



Scaphognathinae



 Pterodactyloidea 
 Ornithocheiroidea 

Istiodactylus


 Euornithocheira 

Ornithocheiridae


 Pteranodontidae 

Nyctosaurus



Pteranodontinae





 Lophocratia 
 Ctenochasmatoidea 

Gallodactylidae


 Euctenochasmatia 

Pterodactylus



Lonchodectes



Ctenochasmatidae





 Dsungaripteroidea 

Germanodactylus



Dsungaripteridae



 Azhdarchoidea 

Tapejara


Neoazhdarchia

Tupuxuara



Azhdarchidae












Kellner (2003)[uredi - уреди | uredi izvor]

Matrica obuhvata 39 važećih vrsta pterosaura, iako se Rhamphorhynchus longicaudus i Nyctosaurus bonneri obično smatraju sinonimnim sa R. muensteri i N. gracilis, kao i tri vrste kao vanjske grupe (Ornithosuchus longidens, Herrerasaurus ischigualastensis i Scleromochlus taylori). Taksoni su kodirani prema 74 osobine.

Pterosauria 
 Anurognathidae 

Anurognathus ammoni


 Asiaticognathidae 

Batrachognathus volans



Dendrorhynchoides curvidentatus






Sordes pilosus




Scaphognathus crassirostris



Preondactylus buffarinii




Dorygnathus banthensis




Dimorphodon macronyx




Peteinosaurus zambellii



"Eudimorphodon" rosenfeldi


 Novialoidea 
 Campylognathoididae 

Campylognathoides liasicus



Eudimorphodon ranzii




 Rhamphorhynchidae 

Rhamphorhynchus longicaudus



Rhamphorhynchus muensteri



 Pterodactyloidea 
 Archaeopterodactyloidea 


Pterodactylus antiquus



Pterodactylus kochi


 Germanodactylidae 

Germanodactylus cristatus



Germanodactylus rhamphastinus





 Ctenochasmatidae 

Ctenochasma



Pterodaustro guinazui



 Gallodactylidae 

Cycnorhamphus suevicus



Gallodactylus canjuersensis





 Dsungaripteroidea 


Nyctosaurus bonneri



Nyctosaurus gracilis



 Ornithocheiroidea 
 Pteranodontoidea 

Pteranodon longiceps




Istiodactylus latidens



{{Expansion depth limit exceeded|1=Coloborhynchus clavirostris

label2= Anhangueridae  1=Tropeognathus mesembrinus 1=Anhanguera blittersdorffi 2=Anhanguera piscator 3=Anhanguera santanae}} }} }}



 Tapejaroidea 
 Dsungaripteridae 

Dsungaripterus weii



Noripterus complicidens



"Phobetor" parvus



 Azhdarchoidea 

{{Expansion depth limit exceeded|1=Tupuxuara leonardii

1=Tapejara wellnhoferi 2=Tapejara imperator}} }}














Andres (2013)[uredi - уреди | uredi izvor]

Brian Blake Andres je 2010. u svojoj disertaciji napisao recenziju filogenije pterosaura. Njegova filogenetska analiza kombinirala je podatke iz tri različite matrice: Kellnerove izvorne analize (2003) i njenih ažuriranja (Kellner (2004), Wang et al. (2005) i Wang et al. (2009)), Unwinove izvorne analize (2003) i njenih ažuriranja (Unwin (2002), Unwin (2004), Lu et al. (2008) i Lu et al. (2009)) i prethodnih analiza od strane Andres et al. (2005), Andres i Ji (2008) i Andres et al. (2010). Dodatne osobine preuzete su iz DallaVecchia (2009), Bennettovih analiza (1993-1994) i raznih starijih, nefilogenetskih članaka.[1]

Matrica obuhvata 100 važećih vrste pterosaura as jednom vanjskom grupom (Euparkeria capensis). To predstavlja 70,4% od 142 poznate vrste pterosaura. One su ocijenjene na osnovu 183 morfološke osobine (u usporedbi sa 3 vanjske grupe i 57 unutrašnjih grupa koje su ocijenjene na osnovu 89 osobina u Wang et al. 2009 [najnovijoj verziji Kellnerove analize] i sa 1 vanjskom grupom i 59 unutrašnjih grupa koje su ocijenjena na osnovu 117 osobina u Lu et al. 2012 [najnovijoj verziji Unwinove analize]).[2] Nastala topologija ima veću podršku i bolje je riješena od prethodnih analiza. Nadalje, kodira samo vrste kao krajnje taksone, (za razliku od nekih analiza, npr. Unwin (2003), koje su uglavnom koristile porodice) i koristi holotipske primjerke za kodiranja (za razliku od nekih analiza, npr. Kellner (2003)).[1] Tu filogenetsku analizu koristili su Richard J. Butler, Stephen L. Brusatte, Brian B. Andres i Roger B. J. Benson (2012) kako bi ocijenili morfološki diverzitet i sklonosti pri uzimanju uzoraka iz Pterosauria.[2] Članak sa fokusom na filogeniju pterosaura (Andres, u tisku) bit će objavljen u predstojećoj knjizi po imenu "The Pterosauria".[3] Ažuriranu i bolje riješenu verziju ove filogenije službeno su objavili Andres i Myers (2013), sa 185 osobina i 109 taksona kao unutrašnjih grupa. Dolje je kladogram koji pokazuje te rezultate nakon isključenja tri taksona koji se mogu kodirati samo za jednu osobinu (nazivi kladusa prema Andres & Myers, 2013).[4]

Pterosauria 



Preondactylus buffarinii



Austriadactylus cristatus





Peteinosaurus zambellii


 Eudimorphodontidae 
 Raeticodactylinae 

Caviramus schesaplanensis



Raeticodactylus filisurensis





Eudimorphodon cromptonellus




Eudimorphodon ranzii



Eudimorphodon rosenfeldi







 Macronychoptera 


Dimorphodon macronyx



Parapsicephalus purdoni



 Novialoidea 


Campylognathoides liasicus



Campylognathoides zitteli



 Breviquartossa 
 Rhamphorhynchidae 


Scaphognathus crassirostris



 Rhamphorhynchinae 

Dorygnathus banthensis





Cacibupteryx caribensis



Nesodactylus hesperius



Rhamphorhynchus muensteri





Harpactognathus gentryii




Angustinaripterus longicephalus



Sericipterus wucaiwanensis









Sordes pilosus


 Monofenestrata 
 Wukongopteridae 

Pterorhynchus wellnhoferi




Darwinopterus modularis



Wukongopterus lii






Changchengopterus pani


 Caelidracones 
 Anurognathidae 

Dendrorhynchoides curvidentatus




Jeholopterus ninchengensis




Anurognathus ammoni



Batrachognathus volans





 Pterodactyloidea 

Archaeopterodactyloidea (vidjeti ispod)




Haopterus gracilis



Ornithocheiroidea (vidjeti ispod)












Archaeopterodactyloidea 
 Germanodactylidae 

Normannognathus wellnhoferi




Germanodactylus cristatus



Germanodactylus rhamphastinus




 Euctenochasmatia 


Pterodactylus antiquus



Pterodactylus kochi





Ardeadactylus longicollum


 Ctenochasmatoidea 
 Gallodactylidae 


Boreopterus cuiae



Feilongus youngi





Cycnorhamphus suevicus



Gallodactylus canjuersensis




 Ctenochasmatidae 
 Gnathosaurinae 

Kepodactylus insperatus




Elanodactylus prolatus




Huanhepterus quingyangensis




Plataleorhynchus streptophorodon




Gnathosaurus subulatus



Gnathosaurus macrurus







 Ctenochasmatinae 


Ctenochasma elegans



Ctenochasma roemeri





Pterodaustro guinazui




Eosipterus yangi




Beipiaopterus chenianus



Gegepterus changi











 Ornithocheiroidea 
 Pteranodontia 
 Nyctosauridae 

Muzquizopteryx coahuilensis



"Nyctosaurus" lamegoi



Nyctosaurus gracilis





Alamodactylus byrdi


 Pteranodontoidea 


Pteranodon longiceps



Pteranodon sternbergi




 Istiodactylidae 

Longchengpterus zhaoi




Nurhachius ignaciobritoi




Liaoxipterus brachyognathus




Istiodactylus latidens



Istiodactylus sinensis








Lonchodectes compressirostris




Aetodactylus halli




Cearadactylus atrox




Brasileodactylus araripensis




Ludodactylus sibbicki



 Anhangueridae 

Liaoningopterus gui




Anhanguera araripensis



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 Ornithocheiridae 

Tropeognathus mesembrinus




Ornithocheirus simus



{{Expansion depth limit exceeded|1=Coloborhynchus clavirostris

2=Coloborhynchus wadleighi}}













 Azhdarchoidea 


Bennettazhia oregonensis




Nemicolopterus crypticus




"Sinopterus" gui


 Tapejaridae 


Huaxiapterus jii




Eopteranodon lii



Sinopterus dongi






"Huaxiapterus" corollatus




"Huaxiapterus" benxiensis




Bakonydraco galaczi




Tapejara wellnhoferi




Tupandactylus navigans



Tupandactylus imperator











 Neoazhdarchia 

 Chaoyangopteridae 

Eoazhdarcho liaoxiensis




Shenzhoupterus chaoyangensis




Chaoyangopterus zhangi



Jidapterus edentus





 Azhdarchidae 

Radiodactylus langstoni


 Azhdarchinae 

Azhdarcho lancicollis




TMM 42489




Zhejiangopterus linhaiensis




Arambourgiania philadelphiae



Quetzalcoatlus northropi



Quetzalcoatlus sp.









 Thalassodromidae 

Thalassodromeus sethi




Tupuxuara leonardii



Tupuxuara longicristatus




 Dsungaripteridae 


Domeykodactylus ceciliae



Dsungaripterus weii





Noripterus complicidens



Noripterus parvus








Povezano[uredi - уреди | uredi izvor]

Izvori[uredi - уреди | uredi izvor]

  1. 1,0 1,1 Andres, Brian Blake (2010). Systematics of the Pterosauria. Yale University. str. 366. http://gradworks.umi.com/34/40/3440534.html.  Pregled koji pokazuje kladogram bez naziva kladusa
  2. 2,0 2,1 Richard J. Butler, Stephen L. Brusatte, Brian B. Andres and Roger B. J. Benson (2012). "How do geological sampling biases affect studies of morphological evolution in deep time? A case study of the Pterosauria (Reptilia: Archosauria)". Evolution 66 (1): 147–162. doi:10.1111/j.1558-5646.2011.01415.x. 
  3. Andres, Brian Blake (2014). "A review of pterosaur phylogeny". u: Martill, D., Unwin, D., & Loveridge, R. F. (eds). The Pterosauria. Cambridge University Press. http://www.easons.com/display.asp?K=9780521518956&sf1=contributor&st1='David%20Unwin'&m=4&dc=19. 
  4. DOI:10.1017/S1755691013000303
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  • Kellner, A. W. A., (2003): Pterosaur phylogeny and comments on the evolutionary history of the group. pp. 105-137. — in Buffetaut, E. & Mazin, J.-M., (eds.) (2003): Evolution and Palaeobiology of Pterosaurs. Geological Society of London, Special Publications 217, London, 1-347
  • Peters, D., (2007): The origin and radiation of the Pterosauria — in Flugsaurier: The Wellnhofer pterosaur meeting, Munich, 2007, 27-28
  • Unwin, D. M., 2003: On the phylogeny and evolutionary history of pterosaurs. pp. 139-190. — in Buffetaut, E. & Mazin, J.-M., (eds.) (2003): Evolution and Palaeobiology of Pterosaurs. Geological Society of London, Special Publications 217, London, 1-347
  • Wellnhofer, P., (1991): The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Pterosaurs. Salamander Books Ltd., London, pp. 192