Thomas Henry Huxley

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Tomas Henri Haksli

Haksli oko 1880. godine
Haksli oko 1880. godine

Datum rođenja: 4. maj 1825.
Mesto rođenja: London (Ujedinjeno Kraljevstvo)
Datum smrti: 29. jun 1895.
Mesto smrti: Istborn (Ujedinjeno Kraljevstvo)

Tomas Henri Haksli (engl. Thomas Henry Huxley; London, 4. maj 1825Istborn, 29. jun 1895) je bio engleski biolog (komparativni anatomist), poznat pod nadimku „Darvinov buldog“ zbog svog zastupanja teorije evolucije Čarlsa Darvina.

Hakslijeva čuvena debata iz 1860. sa Samjuelom Vilberforsom je bila ključni trenutak za šire prihvatanje evolucije i njegovu karijeru. Haksli je prethodnog dana planirao da ode iz Oksforda, ali se predomislio nakon susreta sa Robertom Čembersom, piscem Vestiges, i odlučio da učestvuje u debati. Vilberforsa je savetovao Ričard Oven, protiv koga je Haksli takođe vodio debatu oko toga da li su ljudi bliski srodnici majmuna.

Haksli je polako prihvatao neke Darvinove ideje, kao što je gradualizam, i nije imao stav o prirodnoj selekciji, ali je uprkos tome punim srcem podržavao Darvina. Kao jedan od zaslužnih za razvoj naučnog obrazovanja u Britaniji, Haksli se borio protiv ekstremnih verzija religijske tracidije.

Haksli je 1869. skovao izraz „agnostik“ da opiše svoja gledišta na teologiju, a taj izraz je nastavio da se koristio do danas.

Haksli je imao malo zvaničnog obrazovanja i bukvalno je bio samouk. Postao je možda najbolji komparativni anatomista druge polovine 19. veka. Proučavao je beskičmenjake, razjasnivši odnose između grupa koje su ranije bile slabo shvaćene. Kasnije je proučavao kičmenjake, naročito vezu između majmuna i ljudi. Nakon što je uporedio fosil Archaeopteryx-a sa Compsognathus-om, zaključio je da su ptice evoluirale od malih dinosaurusa-mesojeda i ta teorija je i danas široko prihvaćena.

Postoji težnja da se njegov rat u anatomiji zaseni njegovim energičnim i kontroverznim aktivnostima u korist evolucije i njegovim javnim radom u naučnom obrazovanju. Obe stvari su imali značajni uticaj na društvo u Brianiji i u svetu.

Tomas Haksli je bio prvi u celom porodičnom nizu viđenih engleskih naučnika i kulturnih radnika. NJegovi unuci su pisac Oldus Haksli, ser Džulijan Haksli (biolog-evolucionista, prvi generalni direktor Uneska) i ser Endru Haksli (fiziolog i dobitnik Nobelove nagrade).

Literatura[uredi - уреди | uredi izvor]

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