Reproduktivni sistem

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Reproduktivni sistem
Male pelvic structures.svg
Muški reproduktivni sistem.
Latinski systema reproductionis

Reproduktivni sistem je sistem organa koji organizmima služi u svrhu razmnožavanja. Organi koji pripadaju reproduktivnom sistemu često se nazivaju spolni ili polni organi.[1] Za razliku od ostalih sistema organa, organi spolnog sistema se znatno razlikuje među različitim polovima iste vrste.[2]

Spolni sistem čoveka uključuje vanjske polne organe i unutarnje polne organe. Ostale skupine kičmenjaka imaju velike sličnosti u građi polnog sistema koji se uglavnom sastoji od polnih žlijezda, različitih vodova i otvora. Međutim, postoje znatne različitosti u fizičkim prilagodbama kao i strategijama razmnožavanja unutar svake grupe kičmenjaka.

Biljke[uredi - уреди]

Među svim živim organizmima, cvetovi, koji su reproduktivne strukture skrivenosjemenica[3][4], su fizički najraznovrsniji i ispoljavaju korespondirajuću veliku raznovrsnost reproduktivnih metoda.[5][6] Biljke koje ne cvetaju (zelene alge[7][8], mahovine[9][10], džigernice[11][12], Anthocerotophyta[13][14], paprati[15][16] i golosjemenjače[7][17], kao što su četinari[18][19]) takođe ispoljavaju komplesna uzajamna dejstva između morfološke adaptacije i faktora sredine u njihovoj seksualnoj reprodukciji. Uzgojni sistem, ili način na koji sperma jedne biljke oplođuje jajašce druge, zavisi od reproduktivne morfologije, i najveća je pojedinačna odrednica genetičke strukture neklonalnih biljnih populacija. Christian Konrad Sprengel[20][21] (1793) je izučavao reprodukciju cvetajućih biljki i prvi je objasnio proces polinacije[22][23] u kome uzimaju učešća biotičke i abiotičke[24][25] interakcije.

Gljive[uredi - уреди]

Reprodukcija gljiva je kompleksna, što odražava razlike u životnim stilovima i genetičkom ustrojstvu unutar različitih kraljevstva organizama.[26] Procenjuje se da se trećina svih gljiva reprodukuje koristeći više od jednog metoda propagacije; na primer, do reprodukcije može doći u dva jasno diferencirana stupnja unutar životnog ciklusa vrsta[27][28], teleomorf[29] i anamorf.[30][31]

Životinje[uredi - уреди]

V. također: Seksualna reprodukcija

Kod životinja, glavni organi reproduktivnog sistema su vanjske genitalije (penis i stidnica), kao i brojni unutrašnji organi, uključujući gonade koje proizvode gamete[32][33][34] (testise i jajnike). Bolesti ljudskog reproduktivnog sistema su veoma česte i široko rasprostranjene, a posebno prenosive seksualno transmitovane bolesti.[35][36][37][38]

Većina drugih kičmenjačkih životinja ima generalno slične reproduktivne sisteme, koji se sastoje od gonada, kanala i otvora. Međutim, postoji velika raznovrsnost u pogledu fizičkih adaptacija, kao i reproduktivnih strategija u svakoj grupi kičmenjaka.

Kičmenjaci[uredi - уреди]

Sve kičmenjačke životinje imaju zajedničke ključne elemente reproduktivnih sistema. Svi oni imaju organe za produkciju gameta ili gonade.[39] Kod ženki, te gonade su zatim vezane putem jajovoda[40] sa otvorom na spoljašnjoj strani tela, tipično kloakom, mada u nekim slučajevima i jedinstvenom porom kao što je vagina[41][42] ili intromitentni organ[43][44].

Sisari[uredi - уреди]

Novorođenjće torbara se doji sa dojke unutar majčinog tobolca

Većina sisarskih reproduktivnih sistema je slična, međutim, postoje izvesne primetne razlike između „normalnog“ sisara i čoveka. Na primer, većina sisarskih mužjaka ima penis koji se nalazi u unutrašnjosti sve do erekcije, i većina ima penisnu kost ili bakulum. Dodatno, mužjaci većine vrsta nisu konstantno seksualno plodni, kao što su ljudi. Poput ljudi, većina grupa sisara ima spuštene testise u skrotumu, mada, kod nekih sisara spušteni testisi počivaju na trbušnom zidu tela, a kod nekoliko grupa sisara, kao što su slonovi, nespušteni testisi se nalaze duboko unutar telesne duplje u blizini bubrega.[45]

Reproduktivni sistem torbara je jedinstven po tome što ženka ima dve vagine, obe od kojih su eksterno otvorene putem jednog otvora, ali vode u dva različita kompartmana unutar uterusa; mužjaci obično imaju dvostruki penis, koji odgovara dvema vaginama ženki.[46][47][48][49][50][51][52][53][54] Torbari tipično razvijaju svoje potomstvo u vanjskom tobolcu koji sadrži dojke za koje se novorođeni mladi torbari pričvrste tokom postuterinskog razvića. Isto tako, torbari imaju jedinstveni prepenijalni skrotum.[55] Novorođenjče koje je 15mm (5/8 in) dugo i instinktivno puzi i kotrlja se nekoliko inčeva (15 cm), kačeći se za krzno, na svom putu to majčinog tobolka.

Materica i vagina su jedinstveni za sisare, bez homologije kod ptica, reptila, vodozemaca ili riba. Umesto materice druge grupe kičmenjaka imaju nemodifikovani jajovod koji direktno vodi do kloaka, koji je zajednički izlazni otvor za gamete, urin, i izmet. Jednootvorni (i.e. čudnovati kljunaši i ješci), grupa sisara koji ležu jaja, takođe nemaju matericu i vaginu, i u pogledu reproduktivnog sistema podsećaju na reptile.

Psi[uredi - уреди]
Glavni članak: Reprodukcija pasa

Kod domaćih pasa, seksualna zrelost (pubertet) se javlja pri uzrastu od 6 do 12 meseci za mužjake i ženke, iako to može biti odgođeno i do dve godine kod nekih većih vrsta.

Konji[uredi - уреди]
Glavni članak: Konjska anatomija

Reproduktivni sistem kobile is odgovoran za kontrolu trudnoće, rađanja, i dojenja, kao i za njen polni ciklus i ponašanje pri parenju. Reproduktivni sistem pastuva je odgovoran za njegovo seksualno ponašanje i sekundarne seksualne karakteristike (kao što je velika griva).

Ptice[uredi - уреди]

Glavni članak: Anatomija ptica

Male and female birds have a cloaca, an opening through which eggs, sperm, and wastes pass. Intercourse is performed by pressing the lips of the cloacae together, which is sometimes knowna intromittent organ which is known as a phallus that is analogous to the mammals' penis. The female lays amniotic eggs in which the young fetus continues to develop after it leaves the female's body. Unlike most vertebrates female birds typically have only one functional ovary and oviduct.[56] As a group, birds, like mammals, are noted for their high level of parental care.

Reptili[uredi - уреди]

Glavni članak: Reptil

Reptili are almost all sexually dimorphic, and exhibit internal fertilization through the cloaca. Some reptiles lay eggs while others are viviparous (animals that deliver live young). Reproductive organs are found within the cloaca of reptiles. Most male reptiles have copulatory organs, which are usually retracted or inverted and stored inside the body. In turtles and crocodilians, the male has a single median penis-like organ, while male snakes and lizards each possess a pair of penis-like organs.

A male common frog in nuptial colors waiting for more females to come in a mass of spawn

Vodozemci[uredi - уреди]

Glavni članak: Vodozemci

Većina vodozemaca exhibit external fertilization of eggs, typically within the water, though some amphibians such as caecilians have internal fertilization.[57] All have paired, internal gonads, connected by ducts to the cloaca.

Ribe[uredi - уреди]

Glavni članak: Reprodukcija riba

Ribe exhibit a wide range of different reproductive strategies. Most fish however are oviparous and exhibit external fertilization. In this process, females use their cloaca to release large quantities of their gametes, called spawn into the water and one or more males release "milt", a white fluid containing many sperm over the unfertilized eggs. Other species of fish are oviparous and have internal fertilization aided by pelvic or anal fins that are modified into an intromittent organ analogous to the human penis.[58] A small portion of fish species are either viviparous or ovoviviparous, and are collectively known as livebearers.[59]

Fish gonads are typically pairs of either ovaries or testes. Most fish are sexually dimorphic but some species are hermaphroditic or unisexual.[60]

Beskičmenjaci[uredi - уреди]

Beskičmenjaci have an extremely diverse array of reproductive systems, the only commonality may be that they all lay eggs. Also, aside from cephalopods, and arthropods, nearly all other invertebrates are hermaphroditic and exhibit external fertilization.

Glavonošci[uredi - уреди]

Glavni članak: Glavonošci

All cephalopods are sexually dimorphic and reproduce by laying eggs. Most cephalopods have semi-internal fertilization, in which the male places his gametes inside the female's mantle cavity or pallial cavity to fertilize the ova found in the female's single ovary.[61] Likewise, male cephalopods have only a single testicle. In the female of most cephalopods the nidamental glands aid in development of the egg.

The "penis" in most unshelled male cephalopods (Coleoidea) is a long and muscular end of the gonoduct used to transfer spermatophores to a modified arm called a hectocotylus. That in turn is used to transfer the spermatophores to the female. In species where the hectocotylus is missing, the "penis" is long and able to extend beyond the mantle cavity and transfer the spermatophores directly to the female.

Insekti[uredi - уреди]

Most insects reproduce oviparously, i.e. by laying eggs. The eggs are produced by the female in a pair of ovaries. Sperm, produced by the male in one testis or more commonly two, is transmitted to the female during mating by means of external genitalia. The sperm is stored within the female in one or more spermathecae. At the time of fertilization, the eggs travel along oviducts to be fertilized by the sperm and are then expelled from the body ("laid"), in most cases via an ovipositor.

Paučnjaci[uredi - уреди]

Arachnids may have one or two gonads, which are located in the abdomen. The genital opening is usually located on the underside of the second abdominal segment. In most species, the male transfers sperm to the female in a package, or spermatophore. Complex courtship rituals have evolved in many arachnids to ensure the safe delivery of the sperm to the female.[62]

Arachnids usually lay yolky eggs, which hatch into immatures that resemble adults. Scorpions, however, are either ovoviviparous or viviparous, depending on species, and bear live young.

Polni sistem čoveka[uredi - уреди]

Razvoj[uredi - уреди]

Razvoj polnog sistema čoveka je usko povezan sa razvojem mokraćnog sistema. Iako se polni sistemi odraslog muškarca i žene znatno razlikuju, oboje polaze iz iste embrionalne osnove. Pol čoveka određen je genetski već kod oplodnje.

Do kraja 6. nedelje unutarmaterničnog razvoja preteče spolnih organa razvijaju se jednako. Pod uticajem posebnog dela Y hromosoma (engl. sex determining region - SRY) dolazi do diferencijacije u muški reproduktivni sistem. Gen koji se nalazi u SRY regiji, faktor određivanja testisa (engl. testis determining factor - TDF) izravno usmjerava razvoj u muški spol. Ako TDF nije prisutan dolazi do razvoja ženskog polnog sistema.

Muški i ženski polni sistem imaju različite organe koje potiču iz iste osnove i imaju iste funkcije:

Primjeri homolognih organa ljudsko spolnog sustava
Muški organ Ženski organ Ista funkcija
Cowperove žlezde Bartholinijeve žlezde Izlučivanje lubrikanata.
Penis Klitoris Erektilno tkivo i podražaj
Testis Jajnik Stvaranje gameta
Prostata Skeneova žlezda Ejakulacijska tekućina i podražaj

Muški polni sistem[uredi - уреди]

Organi muškog spolnog sustav su semenik (lat. testis), pasemenik (lat. epididymis), semenovod (lat. ductus deferens), semeni mehurići (lat. vesiculae seminales), mlaznični vod (lat. ductus ejaculatorius), predstojna žlezda (lat. prostata), gomoljno-crevne žlezde (lat. glandulae bulbo-urethrales) i muški polni ud (lat. penis). Semenici, pasemenici, semenovodi, semeni mehurići i mlazični vodovi su parni organi smešteni u zdelici.

Ženski spolni sistem[uredi - уреди]

Organi ženskog polnog sistema su jajnik (lat. ovarium), jajovod (lat. tuba uterina), materica (lat. uterus), vagina (lat. vagina), stidnica (lat. vulva). Jajnici i jajovodi su parni organi smešteni u zdelici.

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Literatura[uredi - уреди]

  • Female Reproductive System Chart by Anatomical Chart Company, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, ISBN 1587790203
  • Molecular Biology of the Male Reproductive System by David de Kretser, Elsevier Science, ISBN 008091764X
  • The Male Reproductive System Anatomical Chart, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, ISBN 1587790319
  • The Reproductive System by John Sladek, Orion, ISBN 0575110570
  • The Female Reproductive System Anatomical Chart, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, ISBN 1587790211
  • Translational Endocrinology of Bone: Reproduction, Metabolism, and the Central Nervous System, by Gerard Karsenty, Elsevier Science, ISBN 0124158595
  • The Male Reproductive System Anatomical Chart, by Anatomical Chart Company, Peter Bachin, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, ISBN 1587790300
  • Infectious Diseases of the Female Genital Trac by Richard L. Sweet, Ronald S. Gibbs, Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, ISBN 0781778158
  • The Reproduction of Vertebrates by Richard Sadleir, Elsevier Science, ISBN 0323159354
  • Running the Obstacle Course to Sexual and Reproductive Health: Lessons from Latin America by Bonnie Shepard, Praeger Publishers, ISBN 0275970663
  • Human Reproductive Biology by Richard E. Jones, Kristin H. Lopez, Elsevier Science, ISBN 0080508367
  • Sternberg's Diagnostic Surgical Pathology Review by Pier Luigi Di Patre, Darryl Carter, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, ISBN 1451192118
  • Proton and Charged Particle Radiotherapy by Thomas F. De Laney, Hanne M. Kooy, Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, ISBN 0781765528
  • The Reproductive System at a Glance by Linda J. Heffner, Danny J. Schust, Wiley, ISBN 1118607031
  • Cook, J. Gordon (1968). ABC of plant terms. Watford, UK: Merrow. OCLC 474319451. 
  • Darwin, Charles (1877). The Different Forms of Flowers on Plants of the Same Species. London: J. Murray. 
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee, ur. (1982 onwards). Flora of North America (online). eFloras.org. http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1. pristupljeno 2013-03-04. 
  • Linnaeus, Carl (1735). Systema Naturae. 
  • Sattler, Rolf (1973), Organogenesis of Flowers: a Photographic Text-Atlas, University of Toronto Press, ISBN 978-0-8020-1864-9 
  • Sporne, K.R. (1974). The Morphology of Angiosperms. London: Hutchinson. ISBN 978-0-09-120611-6. 
  • Stace, Clive (2010). New Flora of the British Isles (3rd izd.). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-70772-5. 

Vanjske veze[uredi - уреди]


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