Meshwesh

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Meshwesh (često na drevnom egipatskom skraćivano na Ma) su bili drevno libijsko (tj. berbersko) pleme iz Kirenajke. Za vrijeme 19. i 20. dinastije, Meshwesh su bili skoro stalno u sukobu s egipatskom državom. Krajem 21. dinastije, veliki broj Meswesh Libijaca se počeo naseljavati u egipatskoj oblasti Zapadne Delte. Oni su na kraju preuzeli nadzor nad državom krajem 21. dinastije, prvo pod kraljem Osorkonom Starijim. Nakon interregnuma od 38 godina, za vrijeme koga su prijestolje preuzeli domaći egipatski kraljevi Siamun i Psusennes II, Meshweshi su Egiptom vladali kroz 22. i 23. dinastiju pod snažnim vladarima kao što su Shoshenq I, Osorkon I, Osorkon II, Shoshenq III i Osorkon III. Vladavina im je došla kraju tek nakon invazije kušitske 25. dinastije u 20. godini Piyea.

Da su Meshweshi bili libijskog porijekla izričito je navedeno u genealogiji isklesnaoj na stelu Pasenhora (datiranu u vladavinu Shoshenqa V, gdje su Veliki poglavice Meshwesha (uključujući kraljeve 22. dinastije) navedeni kao potomci "Buyuwawe Libijca." Libijsko-berbersko porijeklo Meshwesha se također može vidjeti u osobnim imenima (kao Osorkon, Takelot, Nimlot, Shoshenq, itd.) i nekim ne-egipatskim titulama koje podsjećaju na riječi drevnih i modernih berberskih jezika.

Izvori[uredi - уреди | uredi izvor]

  • Bates, Oric. 1914. The Eastern Libyans: An Essay. Cass Library of African Studies 87. London: Frank Cass and Company Limited. ISBN 0-7146-1634-6
  • Dodson, Aidan Mark. 1995. "Rise & Fall of The House of Shoshenq: The Libyan Centuries of Egyptian History." KMT: A Modern Journal of Ancient Egypt 6 (3):52–67.
  • Gomaà, Farouk. 1974. Die libyschen Fürstentümer des Deltas von Tod Osorkons II. bis zur Wiedervereinigen Ägyptens durch Psametik I. Tübinger Atlas der Vorderen Orients (Reihe B [Geistewissenschaften]) 6. Wiesbaden: Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag.
  • Haring, Bernardus Johannes Jozef. 1992. "Libyans in the Late Twentieth Dynasty". In Village Voices: Proceedings of the Symposium 'Texts from Deir el-Medîna and Their Interpretation,' Leiden, May 31–June 1, 1991, edited by Robert Johannes Demarée and Arno Egberts. Centre of Non-Western Studies Publications 13. Leiden: Centre of Non-Western Studes, Leiden University. 71–80.
  • Kitchen, Kenneth Anderson. [1996]. The Third Intermediate Period in Egypt (1100–650 BC). 3rd ed. Warminster: Aris & Phillips Limited.
  • Leahy, M. Anthony. 1985. "The Libyan Period in Egypt: An Essay in Interpretation." Libyan Studies 16:51–65.
  • ———, ed. 1990. Libya and Egypt c1300–750 BC. London: School of Oriental and African Studies, Centre of Near and Middle Eastern Studies, and The Society for Libyan Studies.
  • Snape, Steven. 2003. "The Emergence of Libya on the Horizon of Egypt". In Mysterious Lands, edited by David B. O'Connor and Stephen G. J. Quirke. Encounters with Ancient Egypt 5. London: Institute of Archaeology, University College London and UCL Press. 93–106.
  • Wainwright, Geoffrey Avery. 1962. "The Meshwesh." Journal of Egyptian Archæology 48:89–99.
  • White, Donald. 1994. "Before the Greeks Came: A Survey of the Current Archaeological Evidence for the Pre-Greek Libyans." Libyan Studies 25 (Cyrenaican Archaeology: An International Colloquium):31–39, 43–44.
  • Yoyotte, Jean. 1961. "Les principautés du Delta au temps de l'anarchie libyenne (Études d'histoire politique)". In Mélanges Maspero. Volume 1: Orient ancien. Mémoires publiés par les membres de l'Institut français d'archéologie orientale du Caire 66/1 (fascicle 4). Cairo: Imprimerie de l'Institut français d'archéologie orientale du Caire. 121–181.

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