Međumorje

Izvor: Wikipedia
Karta jedne od predloženih verzija Međumorske federacije. Svjetlozelena pokaziva ukrajinske i bjeloruske teritorije pod nadzorom SSSR-a.

Međumorje (polj. Międzymorze) je bio projekt kojeg je nakon prvog svjetskog rata promicao Józef Piłsudski, kao federaciju srednjoeuropskih i istočnoeuropskih zemalja koje bi predvodila Poljska [1][2][3][4][5]. U ovu zajednicu se bilo pozvalo baltičke države (Litvu, Latviju i Estonsku), Finsku, Bjelorusiju, Ukrajinu, Slovačku, Mađarsku, Rumunjsku, Kraljevinu SHS i češke zemlje.

Predložena federacija je trebala oponašati Poljsku-Litvu, koja je sezala od Baltičkog do Crnog mora u razdoblju od kraja 16. do kraja 18. stoljeća, inače nastalu ujedinjenjem Kraljevine Poljske i Velike Vojvodine Litve

Neki Litvanci su smatrali ovaj projekt prijetnju njihovoj netom uspostavljenoj neovisnosti, a neki Ukrajinci kao prijetnju njihovim težnjama za osamostaljenjem [6] [7] [8], a suprotstavljala se Rusija i većina zapadnih država osim Francuske. [9] [10]

Međumorje je dopunjavalo ine ambiciozne geopolitičke vizije maršala Piłsudskog - prometejizam, čiji je cilj bio ni više ni manje nego komadanje Ruskog Carstva i oduzimanje odnosno poništavanje svih teritorijalnih osvajanja tog carstva.[11] [12] [13][14].

Unutar dva desetljeća od propasti velikog Piłsudskovog projekta, sve države koje je smatrao kandidatima za članstvom u Međumorskoj federaciji su bile okupirane od strane SSSR-a i/ili Trećeg Reicha.

Izvori[uredi - уреди]

  • David J. Smith, Artis Pabriks, Aldis Purs, Thomas Lane, The Baltic States: Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, Routledge (UK), 2002., ISBN 0-415-28580-1 Google Print, str. 30 (također dostupno i ovdje [1]).
  • Janusz Cisek, Kilka uwag o myśli federacyjnej Józefa Piłsudskiego, Międzymorze – Polska i kraje Europy środkowo-wschodniej XIX-XX wiek (Neke primjedbe na federalističke misli Józefa Piłsudskog, Međumorje-Poljska i istočno-srednjoeuropske zemlje u 19. i 20. st.), Warsaw, 1995.
  • Piotr Okulewicz, Koncepcja "miedzymorza" w myśli i praktyce politycznej obozu Józefa Piłsudskiego w latach 1918-1926 (Koncept Međumorje u političkoj misli i praksi kampa Józefa Piłsudskog u razdoblju 1918.-1926.), Poznań, 2001., ISBN 83-7177-060-X.
  • Jonathan Levy, The Intermarium: Madison, Wilson, and East Central European Federalism, ISBN-10: 1581123698, 2006. [2]
  • Marian Kamil Dziewanowski, "Polski pionier zjednoczonej Europy" ("A Poljski pionir ujedinjene Europe"), Gwiazda Polarna (polarna zvijezda), vol. 96, no 19 (17. rujna, 2005.), str. 10-11.
  • M.K. Dziewanowski, Czartoryski and His Essai sur la diplomatie, 1971, ASIN: B0072XRK6.
  • M.K. Dziewanowski, Joseph Pilsudski: a European Federalist, 1918-1922, Stanford, Hoover Institution, 1979.
  • Peter Jordan, Central Union of Europe, uvod Ernesta Minora Pattersona, Ph.D., President, The American Academy of Political and Social Science, New York, Robert M. McBride & Company, 1944.
  • Antoni Plutynski, We Are 115 Millions, predogovor D. Reeda, London, Eyre & Spottiswoode, 1944.

Vidi još[uredi - уреди]

Izvori[uredi - уреди]

  1. Aviel Roshwald, "Ethnic Nationalism and the Fall of Empires: Central Europe, the Middle East and Russia, 1914-1923", Routledge (UK), 2001, ISBN 0-415-17893-2, str. 37
  2. Richard K Debo, Survival and Consolidation: The Foreign Policy of Soviet Russia, 1918-192, McGill-Queen's Press, 1992., ISBN 0-7735-0828-7, str. 59.
  3. James H. Billington, Fire in the Minds of Men, Transaction Publishers, ISBN 0-7658-0471-9, str. 432
  4. Andrzej Paczkowski, "The Spring Will Be Ours: Poland and the Poles from Occupation to Freedom", Penn State Press, 2003, ISBN 0-271-02308-2, str. 10
  5. David Parker, The Tragedy of Great Power Politics, W. W. Norton & Company, 2001, ISBN 0-393-02025-8, str. 194
  6. Oleksa Pidlutsky, "Figures of the 20th century. Józef Piłsudski: the Chief who Created a State for Himself," Zerkalo Nedeli (the Mirror Weekly), velj. 3-9, 2001., dostupno na internetu na ruskom i na ukrajinskom.
  7. >"The essence of [Józef Piłsudski's "federalist" program] was that after the overthrow of tsardom and the disintegration of the Russian empire, a large, strong and mighty Poland was to be created in Eastern Europe. It would be the reincarnation of the Rzeczpospolita on "federative" principles. It was to include the Polish, Lithuanian, Belarusian and Ukrainian lands. The leading role, of course, was to be given to the Polish ethnic, political, economic and cultural element. […] As such two influential and popular political doctrines with regard to Ukraine — the "incorporationist" and the "federalist" — even before the creation of Polish statehood, were based on ignoring the right of the Ukrainian people to self-determination and put forward claims to rule over the Ukrainian territories…"
    Oleksandr Derhachov, editor, Ukrainian Statehood in the Twentieth Century: Historical and Political Analysis, Chapter: "Ukraine in Polish concepts of foreign policy," Kiev, 1996, ISBN 966-543-040-8
  8. Roman Szporluk, Imperiia ta natsii, Kiev, Dukh i Litera, 2001., ISBN 966-7888-05-3, section II Šablon:Ukr icon
  9. Between Imperial Temptation And Anti-Imperial Function In Eastern European Politics: Poland From The Eighteenth To Twenty-First Century. Andrzej Nowak. Pristupljeno 14. rujna 2007.
  10. Alfonsas Eidintas, Vytautas Zalys, Lithuania in European Politics: The Years of the First Republic, 1918-1940, Palgrave, 1999, ISBN 0-312-22458-3. Google Print, p.78-81
  11. "Józef Pilsudski, Polish revolutionary and statesman, the first chief of state (1918–22) of the newly independent Poland established in November 1918." (Józef Pilsudski in Encyclopedia Britannica)
    "Released in November 1918, [Piłsudski] returned to Warsaw, assumed command of the Polish armies, and proclaimed an independent Polish republic, which he headed." (Piłsudski, Joseph in Columbia Encyclopedia)
  12. Timothy Snyder, Covert Polish missions across the Soviet Ukrainian border, 1928-1933 (str. 55, str. 56, str. 57, str. 58, str. 59, in Cofini, Silvia Salvatici (a cura di), Rubbettino, 2005).
    Timothy Snyder, Sketches from a Secret War: A Polish Artist's Mission to Liberate Soviet Ukraine, Yale University Press, 2005, ISBN 0-300-10670-X, (str. 41, str. 42, str. 43)
  13. "Pilsudski hoped to build not merely a Polish nation state but a greater federation of peoples under the aegis of Poland which would replace Russia as the great power of Eastern Europe. Lithuania, Belorussia and Ukraine were all to be included. His plan called for a truncated and vastly reduced Russia, a plan which excluded negotiations prior to military victory."
    Richard K Debo, Survival and Consolidation: The Foreign Policy of Soviet Russia, 1918-1992, Google Print, str. 59, McGill-Queen's Press, 1992, ISBN 0-7735-0828-7.
  14. "Pilsudski's program for a federation of independent states centered on Poland; in opposing the imperial power of both Russia and Germany it was in many ways a throwback to the romantic Mazzinian nationalism of Young Poland in the early nineteenth century."
    James H. Billington, Fire in the Minds of Men, str. 432, Transaction Publishers, ISBN 0-7658-0471-9


Vanjske poveznice[uredi - уреди]

  • European Review of History 'Intermarium' and 'Wedding to the Sea': Politics of History and Mental Mapping in East Central Europe. Retrieved September 9, 2007