Sjevernoirski sukob

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Sjevernoirski sukob
Map of Ireland's capitals.png
Politička karta Irske
Datum 1968–1998 (30 godina)[1][2][3][4]
Lokacija Sjeverna Irska (većinom); nasilje zabilježeno i u Republici Irskoj, Engleskoj i kopnenoj Evropi
Ishod Vojno primirje[5]
• Paravojni prekid vatre
Sporazum iz Belfasta
Sporazum iz St Andrewsa
• početak kampanje republikanskih disidenata
Sukobljene strane
Državne snage sigurnosti

 Ujedinjeno Kraljevstvo


 Republika Irska

Irske republikanske paravojske Ulsterske lojalističke paravojske
Žrtve i gubici
Britanska vojska: 705
 ∟(uklj. UDR)
RUC: 301
NIPS: 24
TA: 7
Ostala policija (UK): 6
Ratna avijacija: 4
Ratna mornarica: 2
(ukupno: 1049)[6]

Irska vojska: 1
Gardaí: 9
IPS: 1
(total: 11)[6]

PIRA: 291
INLA: 39
OIRA: 27
IPLO: 9
RIRA: 2
(ukupno: 368)[6]
UDA: 91
UVF: 62
RHC: 4
LVF: 3
UR: 2[7]
(ukupno: 162)[6]
Poginulih civila: 1841[8] (ili 1935 uklj. bivše borce)[6]
Ukupno mrtvih: 3532[8]
Ukupno ranjenih: 47.500+[9]
Sve žrtve: 50,000+[10]

Sjevernoirski sukob[11][12][13][14][15] (irski: Na Trioblóidí; engl. Troubles, dosl. "Nevolje") je bio etničko-nacionalistički[16][17][18][19] sukob u Sjevernoj Irskoj tokom druge polovine 20. vijeka koji je s vremena na vrijeme zahvaćao i dijelove Republike Irske, Engleske i kopnene Evrope. Konflikt, ponekad opisivan gerilskim ratom odnosno sukobom niskog inteziteta,[20][21][22] započeo je kasnih 1960-ih i prema mišljenju mnogih okončan je Sporazumom iz Belfasta (ili Sporazum dobrog petka, engl. Good Friday Agreement) 1998. godine,[3][23][24][25][26] iako se sporadično nasilje nastavilo i kasnije.[3][25][27]

Uzroci sukoba bili su primarno političke naravi, s određenim etničkim ili sektaškim dimenzijama,[28] no nije se radilo o vjerskom sukobu.[16][29] Ključni razlog izbijanja konflikta bio je ustavni status Sjeverne Irske. Sukobljene strane dijele se na unioniste/lojaliste koji su pretežito protestanti i smatraju se Britancima, odnosno na nacionaliste/republikance koji su etnički Irci i katoličke vjeroispovjesti. Prva strana zalagala se za ostanak Sjeverne Irske u Ujedinjenom Kraljevstvu, a druga za separatizam i stvaranje Ujedinjene Irske (Republika Irska i Sjeverna Irska). Drugi bitan faktor sukoba bio je odnos dviju navedenih strana, jer se potonja smatrala diskriminiranom od strane unionističke vlade i njene policije.[30][31]

Glavne frakcije u sukobu bile su republikanske paravojske poput Privremene Irske republikanske armije (IRA), Irske nacionalne oslobodilačke armije (INLA), zatim lojalističke paravojske poput Ulsterskih dobrovoljačkih snaga (UVF) i Ulsterskog obrambenog saveza (UDA), te britanske državne snage sigurnosti tj. Britanska vojska i policija RUC. Manju ulogu igrale su i sigurosne snage Republike Irske. U sukobu je poginulo preko 3500 ljudi, od čega 52% civila, 32% članova britanskih sigurosnih snaga, te 16% članova paravojnih skupina.[6] Sveukupno, 60% žrtava ubili su republikanci, 30% lojalisti, a ostalih 10% snage sigurnosti.[32]

Reference[uredi - уреди | uredi izvor]

  1. Frequently Asked Questions - The Northern Ireland Conflict, Conflict Archive on the Internet (cain.ulst.ac.uk).
  2. Arthur Aughey (2005). The Politics of Northern Ireland: Beyond the Belfast Agreement, London; New York: Routledge, str. 7; ISBN 9780415327886.
  3. 3,0 3,1 3,2 "The troubles were over, but the killing continued. Some of the heirs to Ireland's violent traditions refused to give up their inheritance."
    Jack Holland (1999). Hope against History: The Course of Conflict in Northern Ireland. Henry Holt & Company, str. 221; ISBN 9780805060874
  4. Gordon Gillespie (2008), Historical Dictionary of the Northern Ireland Conflict, Lanham: Scarecrow Press, str. 250; ISBN 9780810855830
  5. Peter Taylor (1997). Odlomak 21. Stalemate u Behind the mask: The IRA and Sinn Féin, New York: TV Books, str. 246–61. ISBN 9781575000619
  6. 6,0 6,1 6,2 6,3 6,4 6,5 Malcolm Sutton's Index of Deaths from the Conflict in Ireland: Status of person killed. Conflict Archive on the Internet (CAIN)
  7. Organizations: U (v. pod "Ulster Resistance"). Conflict Archive on the Internet (CAIN)
  8. 8,0 8,1 Malcolm Sutton's Index of Deaths from the Conflict in Ireland: Status summary. Conflict Archive on the Internet (CAIN)
  9. Security and defence-related statistics. Conflict Archive on the Internet (CAIN)
  10. "History – The Troubles – Violence". BBC. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/topics/troubles_violence. pristupljeno 26. 5. 2013. 
  11. A Glossary of Terms Related to the Conflict. Conflict Archive on the Internet (CAIN). Citat: "The term 'the Troubles' is a euphemism used by people in Ireland for the present conflict. The term has been used before to describe other periods of Irish history. On the CAIN web site the terms 'Northern Ireland conflict' and 'the Troubles', are used interchangeably."
  12. Joanne McEvoy (2008). The Politics of Northern Ireland. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, str. 1, ISBN 9780748625017. Citat: "the Northern Ireland conflict, known locally as 'the Troubles', endured for three decades and claimed the lives of more than 3,500 people".
  13. David McKittrick i David McVea (2001). Making Sense of the Troubles: A History of the Northern Ireland Conflict. London: Penguin Books, ISBN 9780141003054
  14. Gordon Gillespie (2009). The A to Z of the Northern Ireland Conflict. Lanham: Scarecrow Press, ISBN 9780810870451
  15. Aaron Edwards i Cillian McGrattan (2012). The Northern Ireland Conflict: A Beginner's Guide. Oxford: Oneworld Publications, ISBN 9781780741710
  16. 16,0 16,1 Mitchell, Claire (2013). Religion, Identity and Politics in Northern Ireland. Ashgate Publishing. str. 5. "The most popular school of thought on religion is encapsulated in McGarry and O'Leary's Explaining Northern Ireland (1995), and is echoed by Coulter (1999) and Clayton (1998). The central argument is that religion is an ethnic marker, but that it is not generally politically relevant in and of itself. Instead, ethnonationalism lies at the root of the conflict. Hayes and McAllister (1999a) point out that this represents something of an academic consensus." 
  17. John McGarry & Brendan O'Leary (15. 6. 1995). Explaining Northern Ireland. Wiley-Blackwell. str. 18. ISBN 9780631183495. 
  18. Dermot Keogh, ur. (28. 1. 1994). Northern Ireland and the Politics of Reconciliation. Cambridge University Press. str. 55–59. ISBN 9780521459334. 
  19. John Coakley. "Ethnic Conflict and the Two-State Solution: the Irish Experience of Partition". http://www.passia.org/seminars/2004/John-Coakley-Ireland-Seminar.htm. pristupljeno 15. 2. 2009. "...these attitudes are not rooted particularly in religious belief, but rather in underlying ethnonational identity patterns." 
  20. "Who Won The War? Revisiting NI on 20th anniversary of ceasefires". BBC. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-northern-ireland-29369805. pristupljeno 26. 9. 2014. 
  21. "Troubles 'not war' motion passed". News.bbc.co.uk. 18. 2. 2008. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/northern_ireland/7249681.stm. pristupljeno 3. 3. 2015. 
  22. "Frost over the World - "7:19 Paisley Describes Troubles As War"". youtube.com. 28. 3. 2008. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5_Yr6i0_9Hs#t=435. pristupljeno 3. 3. 2015. 
  23. Arthur Aughey. The Politics of Northern Ireland: Beyond the Belfast Agreement, str. 7; ISBN 9780415327886.
  24. Gordon Gillespie. Historical Dictionary of the Northern Ireland Conflict str. 250; ISBN 9780810855830
  25. 25,0 25,1 Marianne Elliot. The Long Road to Peace in Northern Ireland: Peace Lectures from the Institute of Irish Studies at Liverpool University. University of Liverpool Institute of Irish Studies, Liverpool University Press, 2007, str. 2, 188; ISBN 1846310652.
  26. Michael Goodspeed. When reason fails: Portraits of armies at war: America, Britain, Israel, and the future. Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002, str. 44, 61; ISBN 0275973786
  27. "Draft List of Deaths Related to the Conflict (2003–present)". http://cain.ulst.ac.uk/issues/violence/deathsfrom2002draft.htm. pristupljeno 31. 7. 2008. 
  28. Michael L. Storey (2004). Representing the Troubles in Irish Short Fiction, Washington, DC: Catholic University of America Press, str. 149, ISBN 9780813216607
  29. Richard Jenkins (1997). Rethinking Ethnicity: Arguments and Explorations. SAGE Publications. str. 120. "It should, I think, be apparent that the Northern Irish conflict is not a religious conflict... Although religion has a place—and indeed an important one—in the repertoire of conflict in Northern Ireland, the majority of participants see the situation as primarily concerned with matters of politics and nationalism, not religion. And there is no reason to disagree with them." 
  30. Richard English (1998). The State: Historical and Political Dimensions, Charles Townshend, Routledge, str. 96; ISBN 9780415154772
  31. Dominic Bryan (2000). Orange Parades: The Politics of Ritual, Tradition and Control, London; Sterling: Pluto Press, str. 94; ISBN 9781849640466
  32. "Sutton Index of Deaths: Summary of Organisation responsible". Conflict Archive on the Internet (CAIN). http://cain.ulst.ac.uk/sutton/tables/Organisation_Summary.html. pristupljeno 24. 2. 2016. 

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