Pobuna u Eureki

Iz Wikipedije, slobodne enciklopedije
Pobuna u Eureki
Eureka stockade battle.jpg
J. B. Henderson: Pobuna u Eureki (1854.), akvarel
Datum 3. prosinca 1854.
Lokacija Eureka, Vic., Australija
Ishod Vlasti guše pobunu rudara
Sukobljeni
 Ujedinjeno Kraljevstvo Eureka Flag.svg Pobunjeni rudari
Vođe
Ujedinjeno Kraljevstvo John Wellesley Thomas
Ujedinjeno Kraljevstvo Charles Pasley
Eureka Flag.svg Peter Lalor +
Eureka Flag.svg Henry Ross + #
Vojne snage
276 120
Posljedice
6 mrtvih cca. 22 mrtvih
12 ozlijeđenih
120 uhapšenih

Pobuna u Eureki 1854. godine bila je povijesno značajna, organizirana pobuna rudara iz okolice Ballarata protiv kolonijalnih vlasti Ujedinjenog Kraljevstva. Konačni sukob vodio se 3. prosinca 1854. između rudara i australskih kolonijalnih trupa u predgrađu Eureka, a ostao je zapamčen po palisadama što su ih rudari podigli tokom bitke.[1] Uz procijenjenih 27 mrtvih, većina kojih je bila na strani pobunjenika, pobuna u Eureki ostaje najznačajniji konflikt u kolonijalnoj historiji Victorije.

Sama pobuna bila je posljedica kulminiranog nezadovoljstva i građanskog neposluha u okolici Ballarata u jeku zlatne groznice u Victoriji. Rudari su se žalili na pretjerano skupe rudarske dozvole, oporezivanje bez zastupanja (taxation without representation) te na djelovanje vlasti i njezinih službenika (policije i vojske).[2][3] Pobunjenici su se okupili oko reformističkog pokreta u Ballaratu, a posljedica konflikta bila je krvava odmazda od strane kolonijalnih vlasti.

Masovna podrška javnosti u glavnom gradu Victorije, Melbourneu, tokom suđenja pobunjenicima dovela je do izglasavanja Izbornog zakona iz 1856. godine, kojim su svi punoljetni, bijeli muškarci dobili puno aktivno i pasivno biračko pravo za donji dom parlamenta u Victoriji, čime je on postao druga demokratski izabrana institucija u Australiji.[2] Upravo zbog toga, neki povjesničari smatraju pobunu u Eureki događajem koji je "rodio" demokraciju u Australiji te političkom pobunom.[4][5][6]

Reference[uredi - уреди | uredi izvor]

  1. Wendy Lewis, Simon Balderstone and John Bowan (2006). Events That Shaped Australia. New Holand. ISBN 978-1-74110-492-9. 
  2. 2,0 2,1 "The government was forced to abandon the licence substitute it with a cheaper miner's right which also conferred on men the right to vote" The Victorians: Arriving; Richard Broome, 1984. P.92.
  3. Withers, WB History of Ballarat and some Ballarat Reminiscences, Facsimile Edition Published by Ballarat Heritage Services 1999, First Published 1800, Pp 63–64.
  4. 'Dr. H.V. Evatt, leader of the ALP, wrote that "The Eureka Stockade was of crucial importance in the making of Australian democracy"; Robert Menzies, later Liberal Prime Minister, said that "the Eureka revolution was an earnest attempt at democratic government"; and, Ben Chifley, former ALP Prime Minister, wrote that "Eureka was more than an incident or passing phase. It was greater in significance than the short-lived revolt against tyrannical authority would suggest. The permanency of Eureka in its impact on our development was that it was the first real affirmation of our determination to be masters of our own political destiny." (from "The Eureka Rebellion". National Republicans. http://home.alphalink.com.au/~eureka/eukand.htm. , quoting Historical Studies: Eureka Supplement, Melbourne University Press, Carlton, Vic., 1965, pages 125–6)
  5. Sunter, Anne Beggs (2003). "Contested Memories of Eureka: Museum Interpretations of the Eureka Stockade". Labour History. History Cooperative. http://www.historycooperative.org/journals/lab/85/sunter.html. pristupljeno 22 December 2006. 
  6. Geoffrey Blainey commented in 1963 that "Eureka became a legend, a battlecry for nationalists. republicans, liberals, radicals, or communists, each creed finding in the rebellion the lessons they liked to see." ..."In fact the new colonies' political constitutions were not affected by Eureka, but the first Parliament that met under Victoria's new constitution was alert to the democratic spirit of the goldfields, and passed laws enabling each adult man in Victoria to vote at elections, to vote by secret ballot, and to stand for the Legislative Assembly." Blainey, Geoffrey (1963). The Rush That Never Ended. Melbourne University Press. str. 56–7.