Gornji Jelovac

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Gornji Jelovac
Osnovni podaci
Država  Bosna i Hercegovina
Entitet Republika Srpska
Opština/Općina Prijedor
Stanovništvo ((1991)) 547
Koordinate 45°04′06″N 16°43′36″E / 45.0683°N 16.7267°E / 45.0683; 16.7267
Gornji Jelovac na karti BiH
Gornji Jelovac
Gornji Jelovac
Gornji Jelovac na karti BiH

Koordinate: 45° 04′ 06" SGŠ, 16° 43′ 36" IGD
Gornji Jelovac is populated place in the City of Prijedor, in Republika Srpska, Bosnia - Herzegovina. According to 1991 Census there were 547 citizens.[1]

Geography[uredi - уреди | uredi kôd]

It is located in the very heart of Kozara, below the peak of Komanda (elevation 497 m - the eastern edge of the village). From the west, the border is the ridge Planinica, and from the south Bukova Kosa (elevation 287 m). In the north, Jelovac is open to Knežopolje, i.e Donji Jelovac and further to Knežica. In the north-east, at 301 m, there is the famous hill Patrija, the thirteen century old Serbian Knežopolje Guard.[2] There is the Road of Partisan Liberation - from the river Mlječanica to the elementary school "Petar Kočić". The average altitude of the village is 240 m.

About 60% is arable land and about 40% is forest. These rivers belong to Jelovac: Mlječanica, Rijeka Jelovačka, Jelovača, Poljanski potok, Studena and Petrovića potok (flows from Prodans to Cerova kosa through Aleksićs and Vilas). There are 27 wells of drinking water.[3]

History[uredi - уреди | uredi kôd]

Pre-Roman and Roman Times

The history of the broader area dates back to ancient times. The first traces of life in this area are evident in prehistory - which is considered to be around 4000 B.C. In pre-Roman times and in Roman times, the Meze tribe lived in this area, which disappeared from the world stage in the 5th century, together with the Roman Empire. There is a significant evidence of a Roman presence in the region over several centuries. The Serbs have been inhabiting this area since the 7th century. In that thirteen-century period, peoples' sufferings were very frequent.[4]

The Middle Ages

Slavs have inhabited the larger area since the 7th century. It is not known when the name Gornji Jelovac was first mentioned. In our area, the rulers were from the Kotromanić family. There were 11 Stefan rulers (word Stefan = the one who was crowned), starting from Stefan Prijezda I Kotromanić (who ruled from 1290) all the way to Stefan Vukčić Kosača (who ruled until 1466), which is the period of 176 years. For a short period, this area, known in history as Donji Kraji, was under the rule of Tvrtko I (Stefan Tvrtko I Kotromanić - ban from 1367 to 1377, king from 1377 to 1391).[5]

Turkish Administration

Gornji Jelovac fell under the Turkish rule after the end of Kotromanić's rule, and Banja Luka was the seat of the Sandžaks between 1554 and 1580. Turkish rule lasted from 1466 to 1878. The Christian Orthodox churches and monasteries around Banja Luka were built mainly in the 19th century, while the monasteries of Moštanica, Gomionica and Liplje were built many centuries earlier. During Turkish rule, the area was not modernized.[6]

Austro-Hungarian Administration

From 1878 to 1918, the area fell under the rule of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy. The Austro-Hungarian occupation in 1878[7] led to economic progress. Mills, sawmills and infrastructure have been developed. In 1898 Christ Ascension Christian Orthodox church was built in Donji Jelovac. The period of 40 years of Austro-Hungarian rule is called the golden age in economic terms.[8] In the First World War, many local men (never found exact number)[9] fought in the Serbian Army, while 36 volunteers[10] fought on the Thessaloniki Front in 1918, and two were killed for the king and the fatherland.[11][12]

Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes - Yugoslavia, Peace and Freedom

From 1 December 1918 the area became an integral part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. A decade after the First World War, the village was part of the Vrbas Banovina - the province of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. The primary school was opened in Jelovac Donji in 1923. From the economy perspective the 23-year period of the Kingdom's rule[13] is considered as the Bronze Age.[14]

Second World War

During the Second World War the Independent State of Croatia (NDH) Ustasha Nazis slaughtered and otherwise killed 626 Serb civilians, including 267 children under the age of 15 [15]. In this place, Croatian Ustashas killed 50 mothers with their children, including Radojka Mudrinić and her nine children and Milica Knežević with her seven children.[16] In the same period, 59 soldiers - members of the NOP were killed.[17]

Gornji Jelovac is the only place where four mass graves[18] from the WW II exist: Macurska krčevina, Lakino kućište, Hajdučki izvor and Kneževića luka. Next to the Dubica road in Kolareva Luka, there is a monument with the names of 109 martyrs. On the Patrija Hill, there is a monument to the Breakthrough of the Nazi-Ustasha ring on 3/4 July 1942 - built in 1967, and renovated in 2009. In 1959, a monument dedicated to killed fighters of the National Liberation Movement was erected along the Dubica road near Došen (38 listed). In the same year, a memorial plaque to the killed residents of Jelovac Gornji was erected at that place, and it is placed on the local primary school building. In this village 34 families were totally destroyed - none of members survived brutal killing and Jasenovac Factory of Death, where Ustashas used 57 documented ways of torture and killing.[19] NDH war villains killed civilians - unarmed people with axes, mites and knives, on the doorstep, orchards, foresters, wherever they reached someone.

Mr Spasoja Aleksic, at the age of 82 (in 2010), concluded that the perpetrators of the massacre in Jelovac and the entire Potkozarje were NDH Ustashas. There were 68 % Croats from Herzegovina (Široki Brijeg = Lištica, Livno and Duvno), 10 % Croats from Croatia, and 22 % Muslims from BiH.

DF / FPR / SFR Yugoslavia

According to economic parameters, the period from 1945 to 1991 is considered as the Silver Age. On 26. and 27. October 1969 two devastating earthquakes (6.0 and 6.4 on the Richter scale) damaged many buildings in Banja Luka and its surroundings, including Gornji Jelovac. It was a time when large numbers of residents moved (mostly permanently) to rather remoted places in Germany, Austria, France, and Australia.

Republika Srpska in the 1991-1995 Civil War

Most of the young men - 105 of them - joined the Republika Srpska Army. This bloody and brutal war took 20 lives. Throughout the newly created entity, on 9 January 1992 (St. Stefan), Gornji Jelovac found itself in a whirlwind of change, which the people find quite difficult to accept. A significant number of residents moved (to work) to Slovenia, Germany, Austria and the USA after 2005.

Population[uredi - уреди | uredi kôd]

Certain number of inhabitants moved to Jelovac from Lika and Visoka Krajina at the end of the 18th and the beginning of the 19th century. Today, the most numerous families are Aleksićs, Prodans, Lukićs, Petrićs, Mudrinićs, Cvijićs, Zorićs and others.

Year Number
1879 445
1885 505
1895 615
1910 764
1921 765
1921 765
1940 1158
1948 519
1953 519
1961 615
1971 779
1981 599
1991 547
2013 328

Economy[uredi - уреди | uredi kôd]

The inhabitants are engaged in agriculture, animal husbandry, poultry, fruit growing, hunting, fishing, viticulture, beekeeping and hand crafts (carpenters, wheelwrights, tub-makers, blacksmiths, bricklayers, roofers, potters, electricians, welders, fitters, car mechanics, car electricians, hairdressers, dressmakers, weavers, embroiderers).

Our ancestors used objects/tools/devices such as: chains, iron pan for baking, iron pad header, iron ash spatula, kneading-through, bucket, vodijer (small bowl for grass scythe grinding stone), distaff, spindle, spindle with ring, winch, flying shuttle, winch, trlica (threshing device which removes the rest of the crushed hemp or linen plant), wooden machine for wet hemp rolling, loom, wooden tub for laundry board, carpenter's ax, wooden plow ...

Since its introduction into wider use: tractors (1964), chainsaws (1964), cereal grain threshing machines (1948), radios (1963), televisions (1968) - with completed electrification, washing machine 1970), cereal grain harvesters, corn harvesters, home telephones (2000), mobile telephones (2002), the Internet, the life of inhabitants became much easier.

Sawmills - mobile circular saws (aran diesel engine) owned by Marko Kovač Stojanović, Sreto Ćurin, Dragan Kunić, Rajko Mudrinić and Predrag Ratković, and sawmills - bansek owned by Zdravko Prodan have accelerated the construction of buildings and other facilities at family homesteads. The only one in use is at Ratković.

A significant momentum was given by the mobile machine - a screw press for the production of raw bricks (owned by Zdravko Prodan), which after drying was baked in a brick furnace 72 hours. In the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, the village had two shops - owned by Nidžo Aleksić and Rade Đaković. During the FPRY / SFRY, there was one shop, and at the end of the 20th century, another one was opened by Ms Bosa Macura. Since 2015 Jelovac has not any shops. Around two decades at the end of 20th century there were several producers who delivered milk to Banja Luka Dairy. The collecting stations functioned at the homestead of Marko Pilipović, Zdravko Prodan and Željko Vukić. Today, the main milk producer and bee-keeper is Rade Šormaz. For a long time Ribnjak - restaurant Zavišić on the Jelovačka River has been in function, and more recently Ribnjak - restaurant Radukić on the Mlječanica River, while Restaurant - cafe Bukova Kosa was closed. Car Seller Asha Auto can offer very good used vehicles. The main road through this village was constructed by Yugoslav Peoples' Army in 1963. The preparation for the road from the Local School across Patrija Hill started on 20 July 2021. The final aim is to have asphalt road from Gornji Jelovac via Mlječanica Hospital Centre to Međuvođe.

Culture and Arts[uredi - уреди | uredi kôd]

"Petar Kočić" Elementary School will celebrate a century of its existence in 2023. It started working as a joint four-grade school in 1923 in Donji Jelovac. The first student from Gornji Jelovac was Rade (father Stevo) Bokan.

Quite a number of children played football, athletics, basketball, handball, table tennis, and chess. Jelovac has a football court, where "Happy Village" ("Selo veselo") competition was held in 2019. The athletic competition "Small Marathon Patrija" was held almost every year in June / July from 1976 to 2015 - totally 17 times, with a break during the Civil War until 2014.

In the Local Cultural Centre (Dom kulture), films were screened for about thirty years, very nice performances were held, as well as dance evenings. The dance evenings were also held near the Monument on Patrija Hill, where the Partisan Breakthrough Road stretches, as well at Arman in Aleksići. Two gatherings of generations were held in 2013 and 2015 at Patrija Hill. By the Republika Srpska Government decision the local road Međuvođe - Mlječanica, Mlječanica - Gornji Jelovac, numbered 1508, became a regional second level road in 2020.

National (peoples') gatherings have been held since 1967 by the Breakthrough Monument on Patrija Hill. Similar gatherings were also held near the former school - on the site where the football court is currently. There is a monument to the fallen National Liberation Movement fighters. Parastos for 312 Serbian martyrs is held on the St. Sisoja Day by the monument in Macure hamlet. The "Remembrance Day of Murdered Children in the Independent State of Croatia" was organized on 19 July 2021 for the first time at the Republic level. Numerous people gathered at this commemoration, when the sky cried ('unexpected' heavy rain, it was pouring).

With the important support of the Republika Srpska Ministry of Labour, War Veterans and Disabled Persons Protection, by the Partisan Breakthrough Road - near the Breakthrough monument on Patrija Hill, the long-awaited construction of a multipurpose facility has begun in November 2020. The Homeland Society Patrija Jelovac Prijedor has been acting in this village from April 2021.

In 1921, Jovan Dobrijević was proclaimed the most beautiful man in the United States.

Milena Reljić, Milan Stojanović and Duško Pilipović are poet writers. There are two art painters - Sanja Prodan and Milorad Vila. Mladen Prodan Junior is very perspective opera singer.

Written about Jelovac[uredi - уреди | uredi kôd]

Rajko Mudrinić "To you under Kozara" poems, 1971 edition

Milan Stojanović "Dried Vine" novel, 2008 edition

Milan Stojanović, MA "Oj, Jelovac" Monograph of Gornji Jelovac Village, 2011 edition

Dr. Dušan - Dule Aleksić "Sixty-five Years of the Primary School in Gornji Jelovac", 2009 edition

Dr. Dušan - Dule Aleksić "Tragedy of the Serb Hearths 1941 - 1945 in Jelovac near Prijedor", 2015 edition

Dr. Dušan - Dule Aleksić "Conspiracies, Wars, and Genocide against Serbs", awaits edition

Marina Ljubičić Bogunović, historian "Ustasha massacre of Serbs in the villages of Veliko and Malo Palančište and Gornji Jelovac near Prijedor in 1942", 2011 edition

Reference[uredi - уреди | uredi kôd]

  1. Nacionalni sastav stanovništva - Rezultati za Republiku po opštinama i naseljenim mjestima 1991.. Sarajevo: Izdanje Državnog zavoda za statistiku Republike Bosne i Hercegovine. 
  2. Borislav Kasagić, Patrija, "Gorazd" Gradiška, 1997
  3. Milan Stojanović "Oj, Jelovac - Monografija sela Gornji Jelovac", "Grafomark" Laktaši, 2011, pages 15-21
  4. "Fotomonografija Prijedor", "Grafomark" Laktaši, 2012, pages 5-13
  5. Milan Stojanović "Oj, Jelovac - Monografija sela Gornji Jelovac", "Grafomark" Laktaši, 2011, pages 5-13
  6. Milan Stojanović "Oj, Jelovac - Monografija sela Gornji Jelovac", "Grafomark" Laktaši, 2011, pages 31-50
  7. Berislav Gavranović "Bosna i Hercegovina u doba austrougarske okupacije, 1878. godine", Akademija nauka i umjetnosti SR Bosne i Hercegovine, Sarajevo, 1973
  8. Dr Vjekoslav Domljan "Prorajtali stoljeće", https://www.6yka.com/novosti/vjekoslav-domljan-prorajtali-stoljece, July 2017.
  9. Dr Dušan Aleksić, "Tragedija srpskih ognjišta 1941. - 1945. god. u Jelovcu kod Prijedora", "Grafomark" Laktaši, 2015, page 43
  10. "Jugoslovenski dobrovoljački korpus", "Vojno delo" Beograd, 1954
  11. Prota Slavko Vujasinović "Knešpolje i vojvoda Petar Pecija Popović (Hajduk Pecija) 1830.-1875.", Banja Luka, 1933
  12. Milan Stojanović "Oj, Jelovac - Monografija sela Gornji Jelovac", "Grafomark" Laktaši, 2011, pages 51-57
  13. Dr Vjekoslav Domljan "Prorajtali stoljeće", https://www.6yka.com/novosti/vjekoslav-domljan-prorajtali-stoljece, July 2017.
  14. Berislav Gavranović "Bosna i Hercegovina u doba austrougarske okupacije, 1878. godine", Akademija nauka i umjetnosti SR Bosne i Hercegovine, Sarajevo, 1973
  15. (Marina Ljubičić Bogunović, "Ustaški pokolj nad Srbima u selima Veliko i Malo Palančište i Gornji Jelovac kod Prijedora 1942. godine", "Grafid" Banja Luka,2011, page 68)
  16. Dragoje Lukić "Rat i djeca Kozare", Beograd, 1990
  17. Milan Stojanović "Oj, Jelovac - Monografija sela Gornji Jelovac", "Grafomark" Laktaši, 2011, pages 58-66
  18. (Marina Ljubičić Bogunović, "Ustaški pokolj nad Srbima u selima Veliko i Malo Palančište i Gornji Jelovac kod Prijedora 1942. godine", "Grafid" Banja Luka. 2011)
  19. Dr Gideon Greif "Jasenovac - Auschwitz of the Balkans, Ustasha Empire of Cruelty", Kiryat Ono, Israel & Miami, FL, USA, 2011, pages 263-274

Vanjske veze[uredi - уреди | uredi kôd]