Ravnotežno stanje (termodinamika)

Izvor: Wikipedia

Termodinamička ravnoteža, je stanje termodinamičkog sistema u kome je on u termičkoj, mehaničkoj i hemijskoj ravnoteži. Stanje sistema u ravnoteži određeno je funkcijama stanja. Funkcije stanja može biti intenzivna funkcija stanja, pritisak i temperatura, ili ekstenzivna funkcija stanja kao npr. molski udeo komponenti. Termodinamička ravnoteža je determinisana minimumom termodinamičkog potencijala.

Za sistem pri konstantnoj zapremini termodinamički potencijal ekvivalentan je Helmholcovoj slobodnoj energiji (engl. Helmholtz free energy):

F = U – TS

Za sistem na konstantnom pritisku termodinamički potencijal ekvivalentan je Gibsovoj slobodnoj energiji (engl. Gibbs free energy):

G = H – TS

Literatura[uredi - уреди]

  • Adkins, C.J. (1968/1983). Equilibrium Thermodynamics, third edition, McGraw-Hill, London, ISBN 0-521-25445-0.
  • Bailyn, M. (1994). A Survey of Thermodynamics, American Institute of Physics Press, New York, ISBN 0-88318-797-3.
  • Beattie, J.A., Oppenheim, I. (1979). Principles of Thermodynamics, Elsevier Scientific Publishing, Amsterdam, ISBN 0-444-41806-7.
  • Ludwig Boltzmann (1896/1964). Lectures on Gas Theory, translated by S.G. Brush, University of California Press, Berkeley.
  • Buchdahl, H.A. (1966). The Concepts of Classical Thermodynamics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK.
  • Herbert Callen (1960/1985). Thermodynamics and an Introduction to Thermostatistics, (1st edition 1960) 2nd edition 1985, Wiley, New York, ISBN 0-471-86256-8.
  • Constantin Carathéodory (1909). Untersuchungen über die Grundlagen der Thermodynamik, Mathematische Annalen, 67: 355–386. A translation may be found here. Also a mostly reliable translation is to be found at Kestin, J. (1976). The Second Law of Thermodynamics, Dowden, Hutchinson & Ross, Stroudsburg PA.
  • Sydney Chapman, Thomas George Cowling (1939/1970). The Mathematical Theory of Non-uniform gases. An Account of the Kinetic Theory of Viscosity, Thermal Conduction and Diffusion in Gases, third edition 1970, Cambridge University Press, London.
  • Crawford, F.H. (1963). Heat, Thermodynamics, and Statistical Physics, Rupert Hart-Davis, London, Harcourt, Brace & World, Inc.
  • de Groot, S.R., Mazur, P. (1962). Non-equilibrium Thermodynamics, North-Holland, Amsterdam. Reprinted (1984), Dover Publications Inc., New York, ISBN 0-486-64741-2.


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