Xian (taoizam)

Izvor: Wikipedia

Xian (kineski: 仙/仚/僊pinyin: 'xiān'Wade-Giles: hsien) je kineska riječ za prosvijetljenu osobu, koja se može prevesti kao:

  • "duhovni besmrtnik; transcendent; natčovjek; nebesko biće (u taoističkoj filozofiji i kozmologiji)
  • fizički besmrtnik; besmrtna osoba; besmrtnik; svetac (u taoističkoj religiji i panteonu)
  • alkemičar; onaj koji traži eliksir života; onaj koji prakticira tehnike za produženje života ili (alkemijske, dijetne, qigong) metode za postizanje nesmrtnosti (u kineskoj alkemiji)
  • čarobnjak; šaman (u kineskoj mitologiji)
  • duh; vilenjak; vila; nimfa" (u popularnoj kineskoj književnosti, 仙境 xian jing je "vilinska zemlja")
  • mudrac koji živi u planinama; planinski čovjek; pustinjak; samotnjak (narodna etimologija za slovo 仙)
  • besmrtnik (talent); nadarena osoba; nebeski ljepotan ili ljepotica; izuzetna osoba (metafora)

Xian se semantički razvio od koncepta duhovne besmrtnosti ("prosvjetljenje") do koncepta fizičke besmrtnosti ("dugovječnost") kroz metode kao što su alkemija, meditacija, vježbe disanja i T'ai chi ch'uan, što je dovelo do pojave legendarnih "besmrtnika".

Izvori[uredi - уреди]

  • Akahori, Akira. 1989. "Drug Taking and Immortality", in Taoist Meditation and Longevity Techniques, ed. Livia Kohn. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, pp. 73–98. ISBN 0-89264-084-7.
  • Blofeld, John. 1978. Taoism: The Road to Immortality. Boston: Shambhala. ISBN 1-57062-589-1.
  • Campany, Robert Ford. 2002. To Live As Long As Heaven and Earth: Ge Hong’s Traditions of Divine Transcendents. Berkeley: University of California Press, pp. 18–31, 52–60 and 75–78. ISBN 0-520-23034-5.
  • DeWoskin, Kenneth. 1990. "Xian Descended: Narrating Xian among Mortals." Taoist Resources 1.2:21–27.
  • Fox, Alan. Zhuangzi, in Great Thinkers of the Eastern World, Ian P. McGreal ed., HarperCollins Publishers, 1995, 99–103.
  • Hawkes, David, tr. 1985. The Songs of the South: An Anthology of Ancient Chinese Poems by Qu Yuan and Other Poets. Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-044375-4.
  • Hsi, Lai. 2001. The Sexual Teachings of the White Tigress: Secrets of the Female Taoist Masters. Rochester, Vermont: Destiny Books, pp. 48. ISBN 0-89281-868-9.
  • Hsi, Lai. 2002. The Sexual Teachings of the Jade Dragon: Taoist Methods for Male Sexual Revitalization. Rochester, Vermont: Destiny Books. pp. 99–100. ISBN 0-89281-963-4.
  • Kohn, Livia. 1993. The Taoist Experience: an anthology. Albany: State University of New York Press. ISBN 0-7914-1579-1.
  • Komjathy, Louis. 2004. Daoist Texts in Translation.
  • Mair, Victor H. 1994. Wandering on the Way: early Taoist tales and parables of Chuang Tzu. New York: Bantam. ISBN 0-553-37406-0.
  • Needham, Joseph and Wang Ling. 1954. Science and Civilisation in China, vol. 2. Cambridge University Press.
  • Paper, Jordan D. 1995. The Spirits Are Drunk: Comparative Approaches to Chinese Religion. State University of New York Press.
  • Robinet, Isabel. 1986. "The Taoist Immortal: Jesters of Light and Shadow, Heaven and Earth". Journal of Chinese Religions 13/14:87–106.
  • Schipper, Kristofer. 1993. The Taoist Body. Berkeley: University of California. ISBN 0-520-08224-9.
  • Schuessler, Axel. 2007. ABC Etymological Dictionary of Old Chinese. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0-8248-1111-9.
  • Watson, Burton, tr. 1968. The Complete works of Chuang Tzu. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-03147-5.
  • Welch, Holmes. 1957. Taoism: The Parting of the Way. Boston: Beacon Press. ISBN 0-8070-5973-0.
  • Wong, Eva. 2000. The Tao of Health, Longevity, and Immortality: The Teachings of Immortals Chung and Lü. Boston: Shambhala.
  • Wu Lu-ch’iang and Tenney L. Davis. 1935. "An Ancient Chinese Alchemical Classic. Ko Hung on the Gold Medicine and on the Yellow and the White]", Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 70:221-84.

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