Ekonomija dinastije Song

Izvor: Wikipedia
A long, landscape oriented segment of scroll depicting throngs of people, mainly men, crossing a bridge over a large river. The atmosphere is chaotic.
Manji dio Qingming Shang He Tu (Duž rijeke za vrijeme festivala Qingming), velike slike koju je početkom 12. vijeka oslikao Zhang Zeduan, a koja prikazuje ekonomske aktivnosti u prijestolnici Kaifeng.

Ekonomija Kine u doba dinastije Song (960–1279) of China je bila obilježena komercijalnomm ekspanzijom, financijskim prosperitetom, povećanim međunarodnim trgovačkim vezama kao i revolucijom u poljoprivrednoj proizvodnji. Narasle su privatne financije, kojima je stimuliran razvoj tržišne mreže kojom su se obalne provincije spajala sa unutrašnjošću. Ekonomija je u doba Songa omogućila ogromnu populacijsku eksploziju, dijelom potaknutu i povećanim uzgajanjem poljoprivrednih kultura u 10. i 11. vijeku, te se stanovništvo Kine udvostručilo i prvi put premašilo 100 miliona ljudi (u usporedbi s ranijom dinastijom Tang, kada je u Kini živjelo 50 miliona ljudi).[1]

Pod dinastijom Song je također zabilježeno primjetno povećanje komercijalnih kontakata sa vanjskim svijetom, pri čemu su trgovci financirali izgradnju trgovačkih brodova kojima se plovilo čak do luka u Istočnoj Africi. Iz tog doba datira razvoj prvih svjetskih banknota ili papirnog novca (v. Jiaozi, Huizi), koji se koristio na masovnoj razini. Uz jedinstveni porezni sistem, kao i efikasne trgovačke rute kroz mrežu puteva i kanala, tako se stvorilo istinski jedinstveno i nacionalno tržište u Kini. Iako je najveći dio prihoda centralne vlasti završavao za održavanje vojske, porezi od tako stvorene komercijalne osnovice su omogućavali stalno napunjenu riznicu vlade Songa. [2] Za izvjesne proizvode ili robu vlada Songa je nametnula monpole, bilo kako bi povećala prihode, bilo da bi osigurala resurse koji su se smtarali nužnim za sigurnost države, pri čemu se kao primjer navode sastojci za proizvodnju baruta.

Izvori[uredi - уреди]

  1. Ebrey, 156.
  2. Ebrey, 167.

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Vanjske veze[uredi - уреди]