Waka (poezija)

Izvor: Wikipedia

Waka (和歌, doslovno "japanska pjesma") ili Yamato uta predstavlja žanr klasične japanske poezije odnosno jedan od glavnih oblika japanske književnosti.[1] Izraz je stvoren u Heianskom periodu, kada se koristio kako bi se razlikovala poezija na japanskom jeziku od kanshija[2][3] (poezije na kineskom), odnosno od kasnije renge.

Izraz waka je ispočetka obuhvaćao brojne i različite oblike, među kojima se ističu tanka (短歌, "kratka pjesma") i chōka (長歌, "duga pjesma"), kao i bussokusekika, sedōka (旋頭歌, "napamet naučena pjesma"[4]) and katauta (片歌, "poem fragment"). Posljednji oblik se prestao koristiti na samom početku Heianskog perioda, a chōka je iščezla ubrzo nakon toga. Tako se izraz waka počeo koristiti samo za tanku.[2][5]

Japanski pjesnik i kritičar Masaoka Shiki je stvorio izraz tanka početkom 20. vijeka smatrajući kako bi se waka trebala obnoviti i modernizirati. Dotada su se sve takve pjesme nazivale waka ili jednostavno uta ("pjesma"). Haiku je također izraz koji je izmislio, korišten za reviziju dotadašnjeg hokkua.

Tradicionalna waka nije imala koncept rime (nekada su se rime, čak i slučajne, zapravo smatrale pogreškama u pjesmi), pa čak i stiha. Umjesto toga, waka ima jedinicu (連) i frazu (句). (Jedinice i fraze se, doduše, često pretvaraju u stihove prilikom prevođenja na zapadne jezike.)


Znameniti waka i tanka pjesmi[uredi - уреди]

Znamenite waka zbirke[uredi - уреди]

Literatura[uredi - уреди]

Waka antologije[uredi - уреди]

  • Brower, Robert H., and Earl Miner, Japanese Court Poetry, Stanford University Press, 1961. ISBN 0-8047-1524-6 pbk
527 pp., a standard academic study.
  • Carter, Steven D., editor and translator, Traditional Japanese Poetry: An Anthology. Stanford University Press, 1991
Waka, tanka, renga, haiku and senryū with translations and annotations
  • Carter, Steven D., editor and translator, Waiting for the Wind: Thirty-Six Poets of Japan's Late Medieval Age, Columbia University Press, 1989
  • Cranston, Edwin, editor and translator, A Waka Anthology, Volume One: The Gem-Glistening Cup, Stanford University Press, 1993. ISBN 0-8047-1922-5 cloth ISBN 0-8047-3157-8 pbk
988 pp. includes almost all waka from the Kojiki (Record of Ancient Matters completed 712) through the Man'yōshū (Collection for Ten Thousand Generations c.759) and also includes the Buddha's Footstone Poems (21 Bussokuseki poems carved in stone at the Yakushi-ji temple in Nara, c. 753)
  • Cranston, Edwin, editor and translator, A Waka Anthology, Volume Two: Grasses of Remembrance, Stanford University Press, 2006. ISBN 0-8047-4825-X cloth
  • Keene, Donald, compiled and edited, Anthology of Japanese Literature from the Earliest Era to the Mid-Nineteenth Century, Grove Press, 1955
  • McCullough, Helen Craig, Brocade by Night: 'Kokin Wakashū' and the Court Style in Japanese Classical Poetry, Stanford University Press, 1985
  • McCullough, Helen Craig, Kokin Wakashū: The First Imperial Anthology of Japanese Poetry, with 'Tosa Nikki' and 'Shinsen Waka', Stanford University Press 1985
  • Miner, Earl, An Introduction to Japanese Court Poetry, Stanford University Press, 1968.
Based on Brower and Miner
  • Philippi, Donald, translator, This Wine of Peace, the Wine of Laughter: A Complete Anthology of Japan's Earliest Songs, New York, Grossman, 1968
  • Rodd, Laurel Rasplica, and Mary Catherine Henkenius, translated and annotated, Kokinshu: A Collection of Poems Ancient and Modern. Cheng & Tsui Company, 1996
  • Sato, Hiroaki, and Burton Watson, editors and translators, From the Country of Eight Islands: An Anthology of Japanese Poetry, multiple editions available
  • Reichhold, Jane, and Kawamura, Hatsue. Trans. A String of Flowers. . . Untied: Love Poems from the Tale of Genji by Murasaki Shikibu. Berkeley, CA: Stonebridge Press. 2002

Moderne tanka antologije[uredi - уреди]

  • Nakano, Jiro, Outcry from the Inferno: Atomic Bomb Tanka Anthology, Honolulu, Hawaii, Bamboo Ridge Press 1995 ISBN 0-910043-38-8 [104 pp. 103 tanka by 103 poets]
  • Shiffert, Edith, and Yuki Sawa, editors and translators, Anthology of Modern Japanese Poetry, Rutland, Vermont, Tuttle, 1972
  • Ueda, Makoto, Modern Japanese Tanka: An Anthology, NY: Columbia University Press, 1996 ISBN 0-231-10432-4 cloth ISBN 978-0-231-10433-3 pbk [257 pp. 400 tanka by 20 poets]

Izvori[uredi - уреди]

  1. Ueda, Makoto. Modern Japanese Tanka. NY: Columbia University Press, 1996. ISBN 978-0-231-10433-3 (p. 1).
  2. 2.0 2.1 Wright, Harold. Songs of Mountains and Coves: Japanese Ancient Pre-haiku Poetry in Simply Haiku, Spring 2006
  3. An Interview With J. Thomas Rimer in Simply Haiku, Spring 2006
  4. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/309916/Kakinomoto-Hitomaro?anchor=ref50358
  5. Sato, Hiroaki and Watson, Burton. From the Country of Eight Islands: An Anthology of Japanese Poetry. Columbia University Press, ISBN 0231163954 p.619

Eksterni linkovi[uredi - уреди]