Sesshō i kampaku

Izvor: Wikipedia

U Japanu je (摂政 Sesshō?) označavao titulu za regenta imenovanog da pomaže djetetu-caru prije sticanja zrelost ili caricu. (関白 Kampaku?) je teoretski bio glavni savjetnik cara , ali je istovremeno bila titula za prvog sekretara (premijera) i regenta koji je pomagao odraslom caru. U Heian eri su te titule označavale de facto vladare Japana. Postojalo je vrlo malo razlike među titulama, i nekoliko pojedinaca je jednostavno mijenjalo titule dok su djeca-carevi sazrijevali, odnosno odrasli carevi abdicirali, umirali i bili mijenjani s djecom.carevima. Dvije titule su bile poznate pod zajedničkim nazivom (摂関 Sekkan?), a porodice koje su na njih imale ekskluzivno pravo bile poznate kao Sekkan-ke ili Sekkan porodice. Nakon Heian ere je umjesto njih vlast preuzeo šogunat.

Umirovljeni kampaku je bio poznat pod titulom Taikō (太閤?), a što je izraz koji se često koristio za Toyotomija Hideyoshija.

Sadržaj/Садржај

Historija[uredi - уреди]

U ranijim periodima su samo članovi carske porodice mogli biti imenovani kao sesshō. Kojiki navodi kako je caru Ojinu pomagala njegova majka carica Jingū, ali se sumnja da za to postoji historijski temelj. Prvi historijski atestirani sesshō bio je princ Shōtoku koji je pomagao carica Suiko.

Klan Fujiwara je postao glavni nositelj titula kampaku i sesshō. Te titule su pripadale klanu Fujiwara Hokke (sjevernoj poroidici Fujiwara) i njihovim potomcima, među kojima je bio Fujiwara no Yoshifusa.

Godine 858. Fujiwara no Yoshifusa je postao sesshō. Bio je prvi koji nije pripadao carskoj kući. Godine 876. Fujiwara no Mototsune, nećak i posvojeni sin Yoshifuse, imenovan je na novostvoreni položaj kampakua.

Poslije Fujiwara no Michinage i Fujiwara no Yorimichija, samo su njihovi potomci držale te titule. U 12. vijeku je bilo pet porodica među potomcima Yorimichija poznatih kao Sekke: Konoe porodica, Kujō porodica, Ichijō porodica, Takatsukasa porodica i Nijō porodica. I porodice Konoe i Kujō su bili potomci Yorimichija preko Fujiwara no Tadamichija. Ostale tri poriduce su poticale od Konoea ili Kujōa. Do Meiji restauracije 1868, tih porodica je držalo ekskluzivna prava na titule s dva izuzetka - Toyotomi Hideyoshijem i njegovim nećakom Toyotomi Hidetsuguom.

Služba i titula kampaku je počela nestajati iz upotrebe čim se uveo premijer Japana za vrijeme Meiji restauracije. Car Meiji je ukinuo službu 1872. Danas je pod Zakonu o carskom domaćinstvu, titula sesshō ograničena na carsku porodicu. Krunski princ Hirohito, prije nego što je postao car Shōwa, je od 1921. do 1926. bio sesshō za mentalno nestabilnog cara Taishoa. Bio je poznat kao sesshō-no-miya.

Popis[uredi - уреди]

Slijedi popis sesshoa i kampakua po redu naslijeđivanja.[1]

Sesshō Kampaku Vladavina Car
Princ Shōtoku 593 – 622 Carica Suiko
Fujiwara no Yoshifusa.[2] 858 – 872 Car Seiwa
Fujiwara no Mototsune 872 – 880 Car Seiwa, Car Yōzei
Fujiwara no Mototsune 880 – 890 Car Yōzei, Car Kōkō, Car Uda
Fujiwara no Tokihira 909[3] Car Daigo
Fujiwara no Tadahira 930 – 941 Car Suzaku
Fujiwara no Tadahira 941 – 949 Car Suzaku, Car Murakami
Fujiwara no Saneyori[4] 967 – 969 Car Reizei
Fujiwara no Saneyori 969 – 970 Car En'yū
Fujiwara no Koretada 970 – 972 Car En'yū
Fujiwara no Kanemichi[5] 972 – 977 Car En'yū
Fujiwara no Yoritada 977 – 986 Car En'yū, Car Kazan
Fujiwara no Kaneie 986 – 990 Car Ichijō
Fujiwara no Kaneie 5. maj (lunarni kalendar) 990 – 8. maj 990 Car Ichijō
Fujiwara no Michitaka 8. maj 990 – 26. maj 990 Car Ichijō
Fujiwara no Michitaka 990 – 993 Car Ichijō
Fujiwara no Michitaka 993 – 995 Car Ichijō
Fujiwara no Michikane 28. april 995 – 8. maj 995 Car Ichijō
Fujiwara no Michinaga 1016 – 1017 Car Go-Ichijō
Fujiwara no Yorimichi 1017 – 1019 Car Go-Ichijō
Fujiwara no Yorimichi. Car Go-Ichijō, Car Go-Suzaku, Car Go-Reizei
Fujiwara no Norimichi 1068 – 1075 Car Go-Sanjō, Car Shirakawa
Fujiwara no Morozane 1075 – 1086 Car Shirakawa
Fujiwara no Morozane 1086 – 1090 Car Horikawa
Fujiwara no Morozane 1090 – 1094 Car Horikawa
Fujiwara no Moromichi 1094 – 1099 Car Horikawa
Fujiwara no Tadazane 1105 – 1107 Car Horikawa
Fujiwara no Tadazane 1107 – 1113 Car Toba
Fujiwara no Tadazane 1113 – 1121 Car Toba
Fujiwara no Tadamichi 1121 – 1123 Car Toba
Fujiwara no Tadamichi 1123 – 1129 Car Sutoku
Fujiwara no Tadamichi 1129 – 1141 Car Sutoku
Fujiwara no Tadamichi 1141 – 1150 Car Konoe
Fujiwara no Tadamichi 1150 – 1158 Car Konoe, Car Go-Shirakawa
Konoe Motozane 1158 – 1165 Car Nijō
Konoe Motozane 1165 – 1166 Car Rokujō
Fujiwara no Motofusa 1166 – 1172 Car Rokujō, Car Takakura
Fujiwara no Motofusa 1172 – 1179 Car Takakura
Konoe Motomichi 1179 – 1180 Car Takakura
Konoe Motomichi 1180 – 1183 Car Antoku
Matsudono Moroie 1183 – 1184 Car Antoku
Konoe Motomichi 1184 – 1186 Car Antoku, Car Go-Toba
Kujō Kanezane 1186 – 1191 Car Go-Toba
Kujō Kanezane 1191 – 1196 Car Go-Toba
Konoe Motomichi 1196 – 1198 Car Tsuchimikado
Konoe Motomichi 1198 – 1202 Car Tsuchimikado
Kujō Yoshitsune 1202 – 1206 Car Tsuchimikado
Konoe Iezane[6] 1206 Car Tsuchimikado
Konoe Iezane[7] 1206 – 1221 Car Tsuchimikado, Car Juntoku
Kujō Michiie[8] 1221 Car Chūkyō
Konoe Iezane.[9] 1221 – 1223 Car Go-Horikawa
Konoe Iezane[10] 1223 – 1228 Car Go-Horikawa
Kujō Michiie 1228 – 1231 Car Go-Horikawa
Kujō Norizane 1231 – 1232 Car Go-Horikawa
Kujō Norizane 1232 – 1235 Car Shijō
Kujō Michiie 1235 – 1237 Car Shijō
Konoe Kanetsune 1237 – 1242 Car Shijō
Konoe Kanetsune 1242 Car Go-Saga
Nijō Yoshizane 1242 – 1246 Car Go-Saga
Ichijō Sanetsune 1246 Car Go-Saga
Ichijō Sanetsune 1246 – 1247 Car Go-Fukakusa
Konoe Kanetsune 1247 – 1252 Car Go-Fukakusa
Takatsukasa Kanehira 1252 – 1254 Car Go-Fukakusa
Takatsukasa Kanehira 1254 – 1261 Car Go-Fukakusa, Car Kameyama
Nijō Yoshizane 1261 – 1265 Car Kameyama
Ichijō Sanetsune 1265 – 1267 Car Kameyama
Konoe Motohira 1267 – 1268 Car Kameyama
Takatsukasa Mototada 1268 – 1273 Car Kameyama
Kujō Tadaie 1273 – 1274 Car Kameyama
Kujō Tadaie 1274 Car Go-Uda
Ichijō Ietsune 1274 – 1275 Car Go-Uda
Takatsukasa Kanehira 1275 – 1278 Car Go-Uda
Takatsukasa Kanehira 1278 – 1287 Car Go-Uda
Nijō Morotada 1287 – 1289 Car Go-Uda, Car Fushimi
Konoe Iemoto 1289 – 1291 Car Fushimi
Kujō Tadanori 1291 – 1293 Car Fushimi
Konoe Iemoto 1293 – 1296 Car Fushimi
Takatsukasa Kanetada 1296 – 1298 Car Fushimi
Takatsukasa Kanetada 1298 Car Go-Fushimi
Nijō Kanemoto 1298 – 1300 Car Go-Fushimi
Nijō Kanemoto 1300 – 1305 Car Go-Fushimi, Car Go-Nijō
Kujō Moronori 1305 – 1308 Car Go-Nijō
Kujō Moronori 1308 Car Hanazono
Takatsukasa Fuyuhira 1308 – 1311 Car Hanazono
Takatsukasa Fuyuhira 1311 – 1313 Car Hanazono
Konoe Iehira 1313 – 1315 Car Hanazono
Takatsukasa Fuyuhira 1315 – 1316 Car Hanazono
Nijō Michihira 1316 – 1318 Car Hanazono, Car Go-Daigo
Ichijō Uchitsune 1318 – 1323 Car Go-Daigo
Kujō Fusazane 1323 – 1324 Car Go-Daigo
Takatsukasa Fuyuhira 1324 – 1327 Car Go-Daigo
Nijō Michihira 1327 – 1330 Car Go-Daigo
Konoe Tsunetada 1330 Car Go-Daigo
Takatsukasa Fuyunori 1330 – 1333 Car Go-Daigo, Car Kōgon
Konoe Tsunetada 1336 – 1337 Car Kōmyō
Konoe Mototsugu 1337 – 1338 Car Kōmyō
Ichijō Tsunemichi 1338 – 1342 Car Kōmyō
Kujō Michinori 1342 Car Kōmyō
Takatsukasa Morohira[11] 1342 – 1346 Car Kōmyō
Nijō Yoshimoto 1346 – 1358 Car Kōmyō, Car Sukō, Car Go-Kōgon
Kujō Tsunenori 1358 – 1361 Car Go-Kōgon
Konoe Michitsugu 1361 – 1363 Car Go-Kōgon
Nijō Yoshimoto 1363 – 1367 Car Go-Kōgon
Takatsukasa Fuyumichi 1367 – 1369 Car Go-Kōgon
Nijō Moroyoshi 1369 – 1375 Car Go-Kōgon, Car Go-En'yū
Kujō Tadamoto 1375 – 1379 Car Go-En'yū
Nijō Morotsugu 1379 – 1382 Car Go-En'yū
Nijō Yoshimoto 1382 – 1388 Car Go-Komatsu
Konoe Kanetsugu 1388 Car Go-Komatsu
Nijō Yoshimoto 1388 Car Go-Komatsu
Nijō Yoshimoto 1388 Car Go-Komatsu
Nijō Morotsugu 1388 – 1394 Car Go-Komatsu
Ichijō Tsunetsugu 1394 – 1398 Car Go-Komatsu
Nijō Morotsugu 1398 – 1399 Car Go-Komatsu
Ichijō Tsunetsugu 1399 – 1408 Car Go-Komatsu
Konoe Tadatsugu 1408 – 1409 Car Go-Komatsu
Nijō Mitsumoto 1409 – 1410 Car Go-Komatsu
Ichijō Tsunetsugu 1410 – 1418 Car Go-Komatsu, Car Shōkō
Kujō Mitsuie 1418 – 1424 Car Shōkō
Nijō Mochimoto 1424 – 1428 Car Shōkō
Nijō Mochimoto 1428 – 1432 Car Go-Hanazono
Nijō Kaneyoshi 1432 Car Go-Hanazono
Nijō Mochimoto 1432 – 1433 Car Go-Hanazono
Nijō Mochimoto 1433 – 1445 Car Go-Hanazono
Konoe Fusatsugu 1445 – 1447 Car Go-Hanazono
Ichijō Kaneyoshi 1447 – 1453 Car Go-Hanazono
Takatsukasa Fusahira 1454 – 1455 Car Go-Hanazono
Nijō Mochimichi 1455 – 1458 Car Go-Hanazono
Ichijō Norifusa 1458 – 1463 Car Go-Hanazono
Nijō Mochimichi 1463 – 1467 Car Go-Hanazono, Car Go-Tsuchimikado
Ichijō Kaneyoshi 1467 – 1470 Car Go-Tsuchimikado
Nijō Masatsugu 1470 – 1476 Car Go-Tsuchimikado
Kujō Masamoto 1476 – 1479 Car Go-Tsuchimikado
Konoe Masaie 1479 – 1483 Car Go-Tsuchimikado
Takatsukasa Masahira 1483 – 1487 Car Go-Tsuchimikado
Kujō Masatada 1487 – 1488 Car Go-Tsuchimikado
Ichijō Fuyuyoshi 1488 – 1493 Car Go-Tsuchimikado
Konoe Hisamichi 1493 – 1497 Car Go-Tsuchimikado
Nijō Hisamoto 1497 Car Go-Tsuchimikado
Ichijō Fuyuyoshi 1497 – 1501 Car Go-Tsuchimikado, Car Go-Kashiwabara
Kujō Hisatsune 1501 – 1513 Car Go-Kashiwabara
Konoe Hisamichi 1513 – 1514 Car Go-Kashiwabara
Takatsukasa Kanesuke 1514 – 1518 Car Go-Kashiwabara
Nijō Korefusa 1518 – 1525 Car Go-Kashiwabara
Konoe Taneie 1525 – 1533 Car Go-Kashiwabara, Car Go-Nara
Kujō Tanemichi 1533 – 1534 Car Go-Nara
Nijō Korefusa 1534 – 1536 Car Go-Nara
Konoe Taneie 1536 – 1542 Car Go-Nara
Takatsukasa Tadafuyu 1542 – 1545 Car Go-Nara
Ichijō Fusamichi 1545 – 1548 Car Go-Nara
Nijō Haruyoshi 1548 – 1553 Car Go-Nara
Ichijō Kanefuyu 1553 – 1554 Car Go-Nara
Konoe Sakihisa 1554 – 1568 Car Go-Nara, Car Ōgimachi
Nijō Haruyoshi 1568 – 1578 Car Ōgimachi
Kujō Kanetaka 1578 – 1581 Car Ōgimachi
Ichijō Uchimoto 1581 – 1585 Car Ōgimachi
Nijō Akizane 1585 Car Ōgimachi
Toyotomi Hideyoshi 1585 – 1591 Car Ōgimachi, Car Go-Yōzei
Toyotomi Hidetsugu 1591 – 1595 Car Go-Yōzei
Kujō Kanetaka 1600 – 1604 Car Go-Yōzei
Konoe Nobutada 1605 – 1606 Car Go-Yōzei
Takatsukasa Nobufusa 1606 – 1608 Car Go-Yōzei
Kujō Yukiie 1608 – 1612 Car Go-Yōzei, Car Go-Mizunoo
Takatsukasa Nobuhisa 1612 – 1615 Car Go-Mizunoo
Nijō Akizane 1615 – 1619 Car Go-Mizunoo
Kujō Yukiie 1619 – 1623 Car Go-Mizunoo
Konoe Nobuhiro 1623 – 1629 Car Go-Mizunoo
Ichijō Akiyoshi 1629 Car Go-Mizunoo
Ichijō Akiyoshi 1629 – 1635 Empress Meishō
Nijō Yasumichi 1635 – 1647 Empress Meishō, Car Go-Kōmyō
Kujō Michifusa 1647 Car Go-Kōmyō
Ichijō Akiyoshi 1647 Car Go-Kōmyō
Ichijō Akiyoshi 1647 – 1651 Car Go-Kōmyō
Konoe Hisatsugu 1651 – 1653 Car Go-Kōmyō
Nijō Mitsuhira 1653 – 1663 Car Go-Kōmyō, Car Go-Sai
Nijō Mitsuhira 1663 – 1664 Car Reigen
Takatsukasa Fusasuke 1664 – 1668 Car Reigen
Takatsukasa Fusasuke 1668 – 1682 Car Reigen
Ichijō Kaneteru 1682 – 1687 Car Reigen
Ichijō Kaneteru 1687 – 1689 Car Higashiyama
Ichijō Kaneteru 1689 – 1690 Car Higashiyama
Konoe Motohiro 1690 – 1703 Car Higashiyama
Takatsukasa Kanehiro 1703 – 1707 Car Higashiyama
Konoe Iehiro 1707 – 1709 Car Higashiyama
Konoe Iehiro 1709 – 1712 Car Nakamikado
Kujō Sukezane 1712 – 1716 Car Nakamikado
Kujō Sukezane 1716 – 1722 Car Nakamikado
Nijō Tsunahira 1722 – 1726 Car Nakamikado
Konoe Iehisa 1726 – 1736 Car Nakamikado, Car Sakuramachi
Nijō Yoshitada 1736 – 1737 Car Sakuramachi
Ichijō Kaneka 1737 – 1746 Car Sakuramachi
Ichijō Michika 1746 – 1747 Car Sakuramachi
Ichijō Michika 1747 – 1755 Car Momozono
Ichijō Michika 1755 – 1757 Car Momozono
Konoe Uchisaki 1757 – 1762 Car Momozono
Konoe Uchisaki 1762 – 1772 Empress Go-Sakuramachi, Car Go-Momozono
Konoe Uchisaki 1772 – 1778 Car Go-Momozono
Kujō Naozane 1778 – 1779 Car Go-Momozono
Kujō Naozane 1779 – 1785 Car Kōkaku
Kujō Naozane 1785 – 1787 Car Kōkaku
Takatsukasa Sukehira 1787 – 1791 Car Kōkaku
Ichijō Teruyoshi 1791 – 1795 Car Kōkaku
Takatsukasa Masahiro 1795 – 1814 Car Kōkaku
Ichijō Tadayoshi 1814 – 1823 Car Kōkaku, Car Ninkō
Takatsukasa Masamichi 1823 – 1856 Car Ninkō, Car Kōmei
Kujō Hisatada 1856 – 1862 Car Kōmei
Konoe Tadahiro 1862 – 1863 Car Kōmei
Takatsukasa Sukehiro 1863 Car Kōmei
Nijō Nariyuki 1863 – 1866 Car Kōmei
Nijō Nariyuki 1867 Car Meiji
Krunski princ Hirohito 1921 – 1926 Car Taishō

Izvori[uredi - уреди]

  1. ネケト. "摂政・関白" (japanski). http://nekhet.ddo.jp/ruler/japan/sekkan.html. pristupljeno 2007-09-20. , and
    "摂政・関白の一覧" (japanski). Japanska Wikipedija. http://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/摂政・関白の一覧. pristupljeno 20. IX 2007. 
    . Kada se dva izvora razlikuju, koristi se prvi.
  2. Brown, Delmer et al. (1979). The Future and the Past, a translation and study of the "Gukanshō," p. 286.
  3. Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Annales des empereurs du japon, p. 132.
  4. Titsingh, p. 142.
  5. Titsingh, Isaac. (1384). p. 145.
  6. Titsingh, p. 229.
  7. Titsingh, pp. 229-236.
  8. Titsingh, p. 236.
  9. Titsingh, p. 238.
  10. Titsingh, p. 239.
  11. Titsingh, p. 297.

Literatura[uredi - уреди]