Naučna metoda

Izvor: Wikipedia
Algoritam za postavljanje teorije naučnim metodom

Naučni metod označava proces kojim naučnici dolaze do spoznaja o određenim fenomenima putem postavljanja pretpostavki te njihovog provjeravanja kroz eksperimente.[1][2] Da bi imao naučni karakter, istraživački metod mora biti zasnovan na prikupljanju primetne, empirijske i merljive evidencije.[3] Naučni metod je: „metod postupaka koji su osobeni za prirodne nauke od 17. veka, i koji se sastoje od sistematskih posmatranja, merenja i eksperimenta, kao i formulacije, testiranja i menjanje hipoteza“.[4]

Metod je u teoriji saznanja i nauci, sistematski, objektivan način dolaska do nedvosmislenog odgovora na postavljene hipoteze. Postoji više vrsta podela metoda od kojih su najpoznatije metode u prirodnim i društvenim naukama.

Reference[uredi - уреди]

  1. Max Born (1949). Natural Philosophy of Cause and Chance. Peter Smith. 
  2. Alfred Scharff Goldhaber, Michael Martin Nieto (January–March 2010). "Photon and graviton mass limits". Rev. Mod. Phys. (American Physical Society) 82: 939–979. doi:10.1103/RevModPhys.82.939. 
  3. "Newton's Philosophy (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)". http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/newton-philosophy/. 
  4. "Definition of scientific from Oxford Dictionaries Online". http://oxforddictionaries.com/view/entry/m_en_us1287829#m_en_us1287829. 

Dodatna literatura[uredi - уреди]

Ovaj članak, ili jedan njegov deo, izvorno je preuzet iz knjige Ivan Vidanović "Rečnik socijalnog rada" uz odobrenje autora.

  • Bauer, Henry H., Scientific Literacy and the Myth of the Scientific Method, University of Illinois Press, Champaign, IL, 1992
  • Beveridge, William I. B., The Art of Scientific Investigation, Heinemann, Melbourne, Australia, 1950.
  • Bernstein, Richard J., Beyond Objectivism and Relativism: Science, Hermeneutics, and Praxis, University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, PA, 1983.
  • Bozinovski, Stevo, Consequence Driven Systems: Teaching, Learning, and Self-Learning Agents, GOCMAR Publishers, Bitola, Macedonia, 1991.
  • Brody, Baruch A. and Capaldi, Nicholas, Science: Men, Methods, Goals: A Reader: Methods of Physical Science, W. A. Benjamin, 1968
  • Brody, Baruch A., and Grandy, Richard E., Readings in the Philosophy of Science, 2nd edition, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1989.
  • Burks, Arthur W., Chance, Cause, Reason — An Inquiry into the Nature of Scientific Evidence, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL, 1977.
  • Alan Chalmers. What is this thing called science?. Queensland University Press and Open University Press, 1976.
  • Chomsky, Noam, Reflections on Language, Pantheon Books, New York, NY, 1975.
  • Crick, Francis (1988). What Mad Pursuit: A Personal View of Scientific Discovery. New York: Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-09137-7. .
  • Dewey, John, How We Think, D.C. Heath, Lexington, MA, 1910. Reprinted, Prometheus Books, Buffalo, NY, 1991.
  • Earman, John (ed.), Inference, Explanation, and Other Frustrations: Essays in the Philosophy of Science, University of California Press, Berkeley & Los Angeles, CA, 1992.
  • Fraassen, Bas C. van, The Scientific Image, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, 1980.
  • Franklin, James (2009). What Science Knows: And How It Knows It. New York: Encounter Books. ISBN 1594032076. .
  • Gadamer, Hans-Georg, Reason in the Age of Science, Frederick G. Lawrence (trans.), MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1981.
  • Giere, Ronald N. (ed.), Cognitive Models of Science, vol. 15 in 'Minnesota Studies in the Philosophy of Science', University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, MN, 1992.
  • Hacking, Ian, Representing and Intervening, Introductory Topics in the Philosophy of Natural Science, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1983.
  • Heisenberg, Werner, Physics and Beyond, Encounters and Conversations, A.J. Pomerans (trans.), Harper and Row, New York, NY 1971, pp. 63–64.
  • Holton, Gerald, Thematic Origins of Scientific Thought, Kepler to Einstein, 1st edition 1973, revised edition, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 1988.
  • Kuhn, Thomas S., The Essential Tension, Selected Studies in Scientific Tradition and Change, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL, 1977.
  • Latour, Bruno, Science in Action, How to Follow Scientists and Engineers through Society, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 1987.
  • Losee, John, A Historical Introduction to the Philosophy of Science, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, 1972. 2nd edition, 1980.
  • Maxwell, Nicholas, The Comprehensibility of the Universe: A New Conception of Science, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1998. Paperback 2003.
  • Maclyn McCarty (1985) The Transforming Principle: Discovering that genes are made of DNA. New York: W. W. Norton. 252 p. ISBN 0-393-30450-7. Memoir of a researcher in the Avery–MacLeod–McCarty experiment.
  • McComas, William F., ed. The Principal Elements of the Nature of Science: Dispelling the MythsPDF (189 KB), from The Nature of Science in Science Education, pp53–70, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands 1998.
  • Misak, Cheryl J., Truth and the End of Inquiry, A Peircean Account of Truth, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, 1991.
  • Newell, Allen, Unified Theories of Cognition, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 1990.
  • Piattelli-Palmarini, Massimo (ed.), Language and Learning, The Debate between Jean Piaget and Noam Chomsky, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 1980.
  • Popper, Karl R., Unended Quest, An Intellectual Autobiography, Open Court, La Salle, IL, 1982.
  • Putnam, Hilary, Renewing Philosophy, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 1992.
  • Rorty, Richard, Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 1979.
  • Salmon, Wesley C., Four Decades of Scientific Explanation, University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, MN, 1990.
  • Shimony, Abner, Search for a Naturalistic World View: Vol. 1, Scientific Method and Epistemology, Vol. 2, Natural Science and Metaphysics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1993.
  • Thagard, Paul, Conceptual Revolutions, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 1992.
  • Ziman, John (2000). Real Science: what it is, and what it means. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Spoljašnje veze[uredi - уреди]