Hotan

Izvor: Wikipedia
Hotan
خوتەن
和田
—  Grad na razini okruga  —
Khotan-mezquita-d04.jpg
Hotan na karti Xinjiang
Hotan
Hotan
Položaj u Xinjiangu
Hotan na karti China
Hotan
Hotan
Položaj u Kini
Koordinate: 37°6′N 80°1′E / 37.1, 80.017
Zemlja Kina
Provincija Xinjiang
Prefektura Hami
Površina
 - Total 85,035 km² (32,832.2 sq mi)
Stanovništvo
 - Total 364,796
 - Gustoća 4.3/km² (11.1/sq mi)
Poštanskji broj 839000
Karta Centralne Azije (1878) koja pokazuje Khotan (kraj gornjeg desnog kuta) i prijevoj Sanju te prijevoje Hindu-tagh i Ilchi kroz Kunlunske planine do Leha u Ladakhu. Prtehodna granica britanskog Indijskog Carstva je označena ružičasto. Planinski prijevoji su označeni crveno.

Oaza i istoimeni grad Hotan ili Hetian (ujgurski: خوتەن‎, ULY: Xoten?, UPNY: Hotǝn?, kineski: 和田; pinyin: Hétián, nekoć: pojednostavljeni kineski: 和阗; tradicionalni kineski: 和闐; pinyin: Hétián; također Khotan)[1] je glavni grad prefekture u kineskoj autonomnoj regiji Xinjiang. Na kineskom se ranije za njega koristilo ime 于窴 (pinyin: Yutian) a evropskim istraživačima iz 19. vijeka je bio poznat kao Ilchi.

U njemu živi 114.000 stanovnika (2006), a smješten je u Tarimskoj zavali, sjeverno od Kunlunske planine, kroz kojih se probija prijevoj Sanju, kao i prijevoji Hindu-tagh i Ilchi.

U samom gradu, koji je smješten jugoistočno od Yarkanda, žive gotovo isključivo Ujguri te predstavlja manje poljoprivredno središto. Kroz historiju je bio važna stanica na južnom ogranku Puta svile. Hotan je ovisio i dvije važne rijeke - Karakašu i Jurungkašu - poznatim kao Bijeli i Crni Žad, a koje su mu pružale dragocjenu vodu na robu Taklamakanske pistinje. Jurungkaš dan-danas daje vodu gradu i okoliciza navodnjavanje.[2][3]

Fusnote[uredi - уреди]

  1. Službneno se piše "Hotan" prema Zhōngguó dìmínglù 中国地名录 (Beijing, Zhōngguó dìtú chūbǎnshè 中国地图出版社 1997); ISBN 7-5031-1718-4; p. 312.
  2. Marc Aurel Stein. (1907) Ancient Khotan: Detailed Report of Archaeological Explorations in Eastern Turkestan. Oxford. Pages 123-126.
  3. Bonavia, Judy. The Silk Road: Xi'an to Kashgar. Revised by Christopher Baumer (2004), pp. 306-319. Odyssey Publications. ISBN 962-217-741-7.

Izvori[uredi - уреди]

  • Hill, John E. 1988. “Notes on the Dating of Khotanese History.” Indo-Iranian Journal 31 (1988), pp. 179–190. See: [1]
  • Hill, John E. 2004. The Peoples of the West from the Weilüe 魏略 by Yu Huan 魚豢: A Third Century Chinese Account Composed between 239 and 265 CE. Draft annotated English translation. [2]
  • Hill, John E. (2009) Through the Jade Gate to Rome: A Study of the Silk Routes during the Later Han Dynasty, 1st to 2nd Centuries CE. BookSurge, Charleston, South Carolina. ISBN 978-1-4392-2134-1.
  • Hulsewé, A. F. P. and Loewe, M. A. N. 1979. China in Central Asia: The Early Stage 125 BC – AD 23: an annotated translation of chapters 61 and 96 of the History of the Former Han Dynasty. E. J. Brill, Leiden.
  • Legge, James 1886. A Record of Buddhistic Kingdoms: Being an account by the Chinese Monk Fa-Hien of his travels in India and Ceylon (A.D. 399-414) in search of the Buddhist Books of Discipline. Oxford, Clarendon Press. Reprint: New York, Paragon Book Reprint Corp. 1965.
  • Mallory, J. P. and Mair, Victor H. 2000. The Tarim Mummies: Ancient China and the Mystery of the Earliest Peoples from the West. Thames & Hudson. London. 2000.
  • Montell, Gösta, Sven Hedin’s Archaeological Collections from Khotan: Terra-cottas from Yotkan and Dandan-Uiliq, The Bulletin of the Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities 7 (1936), pp. 145–221.
  • Montell, Gösta, Sven Hedin’s Archaeological Collections from Khotan II (appendix by Helmer Smith (pp. 101–102)), The Bulletin of the Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities 10 (1938), pp. 83–113.
  • Puri, B. N. Buddhism in Central Asia, Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited, Delhi, 1987. (2000 reprint).
  • Stein, Aurel M. 1907. Ancient Khotan: Detailed report of archaeological explorations in Chinese Turkestan, 2 vols. Clarendon Press. Oxford. [3]
  • Stein, Aurel M. 1921. Serindia: Detailed report of explorations in Central Asia and westernmost China, 5 vols. London & Oxford. Clarendon Press. Reprint: Delhi. Motilal Banarsidass. 1980. [4]
  • Watters, Thomas 1904-1905. On Yuan Chwang’s Travels in India. London. Royal Asiatic Society. Reprint: Delhi. Mushiram Manoharlal. 1973.
  • Yu, Taishan. 2004. A History of the Relationships between the Western and Eastern Han, Wei, Jin, Northern and Southern Dynasties and the Western Regions. Sino-Platonic Papers No. 131 March, 2004. Dept. of East Asian Languages and Civilizations, University of Pennsylvania.

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