Rat protiv ISIL-a

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Rat protiv ISIL-a
Deo Sirijski građanski rat, Rat protiv terorizma, Irački građanski rat, Libijski građanski rat, Boko Haram pobuna, pobuna na Sjevernom Kavkazu, Moro sukob, Sinajska pobuna
Military Intervention against ISIL.svg
međunarodna vojna intervencija protiv ISIL-a.
  Američka koalicija CJTF-OIR
  Rusko-sirijsko-iransko-iračka koalicija
  Nigerijska koalicija
  ISIL po državama
Vrijeme:13. lipnja 2014. – danas
Mjesto:Irak, Sirija, Libija, Nigerija, Afganistan, Pakistan, Sjeverni Kavkaz i Filipini
Rezultat:

još traje

  • zračni napadi na položaje Islamske Države i al-Kaide po Iraku, Siriji, Libiji, Nigeriji i Afganistanu
  • podrška i naoružavanje mjesnim borcima protiv ISIL-a
  • milijuni raseljenih građana Iraka i Sirije
  • Islamski terorizam po Europi (2014–danas)
  • ISIL kontrolirao gotovo 50% sirijskog teritorija do maja 2015.
  • ISIL izgubio sav teritorij u Libiji 2017.
  • Boko Haram izgubio teritorij u Nigeriji
  • ISIL izgubio velik dio teritorija u Iraku i Siriji
Sukobljene strane

Intervencija u Iraku i Siriji:
Seal of Combined Joint Task Force – Operation Inherent Resolve.svg CJTF–OIR
Sjedinjene Američke Države Sjedinjene Države [1]
 Australija[2][3]
 Kanada (2014–17)[4]
 Belgija (2014–17)[5]
 Danska[6][7][8]
 Švedska[9]
 Francuska[10][11]
 Njemačka[12][13][14]
 Italija[15][16]
 Turska (2014–17)[17][18]
 Nizozemska[19][20]
 Jordan[21]
 Maroko (2014–16)[22][23][24][25]
 Ujedinjeno Kraljevstvo[26][27][28]


 Iran


Intervenirali jedino u Siriji:


Podrška:


Rusko-sirijsko-iransko-iračka koalicija:
Rusija Rusija [47][48][49][50][51]
 Sirija
 Iran[52]
 Irak
Hezbollah[53][54]


Mjesne snage:


Egipatski zračni napadi na Libiju februara 2015.:
 Egipat
 Libija


Nigerijska
intervencija
:

(Boko Haram se pridružuje ISIL-u 2015)
 Nigeria
 Kamerun
 Čad
 Niger
 Burundi
 Sjedinjene Države


 Alžir[57]


Islamska Država Irak i Levant


al-Qaeda
Komandanti i vođe

Donald Trump
Barack Obama
Ashton Carter
James Mattis
Lloyd Austin
Joseph Dunford

Theresa May
David Cameron
Michael Fallon
Nick Houghton
Stuart Peach
Andrew Pulford
Stephen Hillier
Tony Abbott
Malcolm Turnbull
David L. Johnston
Elio Di Rupo
Charles Michel
Steven Vandeput
Bahrein Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa
Stephen Harper
Justin Trudeau
Thomas J. Lawson
Jonathan Vance
Francuska François Hollande[58]
Francuska Emmanuel Macron
Francuska Jean-Yves Le Drian
Francuska Pierre de Villiers


Sirija Bašar al-Assad


Irak Nouri al-Maliki
Irak Fuad Masum
Irak Haider al-Abadi


Irački Kurdistan
Masoud Barzani
Jaafar Sheikh Mustafa
Mustafa Said Qadir


Iran Ali Khamenei
Iran Hasan Rouhani
Iran Kasem Sulejmani


Nigerija Muhammadu Buhari
Čad Idriss Déby
Kamerun Paul Biya
Niger Mahamadou Issoufou
Burundi Pierre Nkurunziza

Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi [59][60]
Abu Mohammad al-Adnani 
Abu Ayman al-Iraqi  [61][62]
Abu Suleiman al-Naser  [62]
Abu Muslim al-Turkmani  [63]
Akram Qirbash 
[64]
Abu Omar al-Shishani  [65][66][67][68]

Abu Muhammad al-Kadari 
Abu Sayyaf 
Snaga
stotine tisuća vojnika i boraca

ISIL:

  • 200.000 boraca u Iraku i Siriji(prema generalštabu iračkog Kurdistana)[69]
  • 20.000–31.500 (procjena CIA)[70]
  • 6.500–10.000 boraca u Libiji[71][72]
  • 7.000–10.000 boraca u Nigeriji[73]
  • 1.000–3.000 boraca u Afganistan[74][75]
  • Najmanje 400 boraca u Filipinima i Maleziji

al-Qaeda:

Žrtve i gubici

Sirijski Kurdistan:

  • 1.636–1.805 poginulih boraca[78]

Irački Kurdistan:

  • 1.500+ poginulih boraca[79]
  • 52 nestalih[80]

Egipat Egipat:

  • 700 poginulih vojnika[81]

Čad Čad:

Nigerija Nigerija:

Iran Iran:

Sjedinjene Američke Države Sjedinjene Države:

Kamerun Kamerun:

  • 6 poginulih vojnika[82]

Turska Turska:

Niger Niger:

Saudijska Arabija Saudijska Arabija:

Rusija Rusija:

Kanada Kanada:

  • 1 poginuo vojnik

Jordan Jordan:

Islamska Država Iraka i Levanta:

  • 60,000+ poginulih[108] i 22.779 uništenih ili oštećenih meta u Iraku i Siriji [109]
  • 1.500–2.500 poginulih u Libiji[110][111]
  • 300 poginulih u Afganistan[112]
  • 131+ poginulih u Egiptu[113][114][115]

al-Qaeda:

Jaysh al-Sunna:


Ahrar al-Sham:

13.568 iračkih i sirijskih civila ubijenih od ISIL-a[120]
2.500 civila ubijenih od zračnih napada koalicije u Iraku i Siriji [121][122]
2.142 ubijena civila u Siriji od ISIL-a[120]
7 civila poginulih u zračnim napadima u Libiji[123]
650+ civila ubijenih od ISIL-a izvan Iraka i Sirije

7.600.000 raseljenih sirijskih civila [124]
3.300.000 raseljenih iračkih civila[124]

Kao odgovor na rapidno teritorijalno širenje Islamske Države Iraka i Levanta (ISIL) u prvoj polovici 2014. godine, i nakon široke međunarodne osude njene brutalnosti, masovnog kršenja ljudskih prava i bojazni od nastavka prelijevanja Sirijskog građanskog rata po drugim državama i regiji, osobito u Iračkom građanskom ratu, mnoge države su se udružile u međunarodnu koaliciju protiv te nepriznate države. U to spadaju i manje vojne intervencije u Nigeriji i Libiji, gdje se dio militanata također pridružio ISIL-u.

Sredinom 2014., Iran je prema američkim i britanskim obavještajnim službama počeo letjeti dronove iznad Iraka, te su se iranski vojnici pridružili iračkoj borbi protiv ISIL-a. Istodobno, Sjedinjene Države su poslale natrag svoje vojne jedinice u Irak. Sveukupno je četrnaest država u sklopu koalicije predvođene američkim vodstvom započela zračne i druge napade po ISIL-ovim logorima po Iraku i Siriji.

Septembra 2015. godine Rusija je uz podršku sirijske vlade započela također sa zračnim napadima protiv ISIL-a, ali i protiv al-Nusra Fronta i Slobodne sirijske armije.

1. februara 2015., irački ministar vanjskih poslova, Ibrahim al-Jaafari, je izjavio da je rat protiv Islamske Države efektivno "svjetski rat", pošto je ISIL proglasio i potražio proširenje granica kako bi uspostavio globalni kalifat, čime želi osvojiti svijet, a ne samo područje bliskog istoka.[125] Maamoun Abdul Karim je rekao da je "ovo bitka cijeloga svijeta".[126]

Od početka tih zračnih napada, ISIL je postepeno počeo gubiti teritorij na terenu. Nekoliko desetaka hiljada islamističkih militanata ISIL-a ubijeno je u tim napadima, iako su isti doveli i do značajnih civilnih žrtava. Bitka za Mosul (2016–2017) i bitka za Raku (2017) se smatraju dvijema ključnim bitkama koje su okružile glavna uporišta, uključujući i Raku, glavni grad ISIL-a, čime se taj kalifat našao pred rasulom 2017. Jula iste godine ISIL je izdao obavijest da je njihov vođa Abu Bakr al-Bagdadi poginuo u zračnom napadu u Raki[59] dok je iračko ministarstvo obrane 9. jula 2017. objavilo da je Mosul vratila pod upravu i otjerale džihadiste Islamske države iz tog uporišta.[127]

Izvori[uredi - уреди | uredi izvor]

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