[[File:Pedro Nunes.png|thumb|right|[[Pedro Nunes]]
was a great scientist of Europe, innovating maths and inventing many devices, such as the [[ Nonius (device)|nonius]].]]
As the pioneer in Age of Discovery, Portugal and its renaissance attracted experts in astronomy, mathematics, and naval technology, which made Portugal a technical and scientific capital of Europe. During the Portuguese Renaissance, there was a plethora of technical works being created, such as [[mappa mundi]], globes, treatises on the art of sailing, scripts, reports of shipwrecks, itineraries, and studies on tropical medicine.
Among the treatises on astronomy, oceanography, and nautical studies, major works included the following:
*''Esmeraldo de Situ Orbis'', 1506, [[Duarte Pacheco Pereira]]
Treaty on the Sphere'', 1537, [[Pedro Nunes]]
Route Map of the Purple Sea'', 1541, [[João de Castro]]
*''Ars Nautica'', 1555, [[Fernão de Oliveira]]
Manuscript on the Production of Naus'', 1580, [[Fernão de Oliveira]]
[[Pedro Nunes]], one of the first Europeans to apply mathematics to cartography, discovered the concept of [[rhumb lines]], later applied to the [[Mercator projection]], which, in 1569, revolutionized cartography. He was also the inventor of several measuring apparatus, including the [[Nonius (device)|nonius]], to measure fractions of a degree.
With [[Vasco da Gama]] 's arrival in [[ India]] , and the Portuguese Empire's expansion into that land, many scientists were sent eastward to study and compile new drugs and medicinal plants. The botonist [[Tomé Pires]] and physicians [[Garcia de Orta]] and [[Cristóvão da Costa ( botanist)|Cristóvão da Costa]] collected and published works on new plants and local medicines.
Portuguese [[portolan chart]] were in great demand in Europe, for their greater knowledge and accuracy. Although protected as a state secret, the cartographic knowledge would eventually be passed clandestinely by some of those involved in the operation. One such example is the [[ Cantino planisphere]], which was stolen from the [[Casa da Índia]], the Portuguese royal ministry for all things maritime, for the [[ Duke of Ferrara]] in 1502,<ref>Leite, Duarte. O mais antigo mapa do Brasil. In: Dias, Carlos Malheiros (coord.). ''História da Colonização Portuguesa do Brasil (v. 2)''. p. 223-281 e il. à p. 229.</ref> or the [[ Dieppe maps]], commissioned by [[Henry II of France]] and [[Henry VIII of England]], which were copies of stolen Portuguese maps of the period.<ref>[https://books.google.com/books?id=3h37IOxTO5cC&lpg=PA73&ots=7M9RfNYiad&dq=Atlas%20miller%20king%20Manuel%20I&pg=PA73#v=onepage&q=Atlas%20miller%20king%20Manuel%20I&f=false Cartographie historique du Golfe persique: actes du colloque organisé les 21 et 22 avril 2004 à Téhéran par l'EPHE, l'université de Téhéran et le Centre de documentation et de recherche d'Iran]</ref>
In 1475, for the first time a Latin translation of [[Ptolemy's world map]], from the second century, was printed. Portuguese exploration and studies soon revealed the gaps of ancient knowledge, such as how in 1488, passing the Cape of Good Hope, [[Bartolomeu Dias]] proved Ptolemy was erroneous in that there was no passage to the Indian Ocean.
In 1492, [[Martin Behaim]], after his training in Portugal, and in service to the [[King of Portugal]], built the first known globe, which had Europe and Asia were separated by a single ocean, a theory that [[Christopher Columbus]], who was also trained in Portugal, would test later that year.
The 1502 ''[[ Cantino planisphere]]'' was the [[Padrão Real]] made by the [[Casa da Índia]]
The 1574 map of the [[ Captaincy Colonies of Brazil]] , by Luís Teixeira
File:Azores old map.jpg|
The 1584 ''Açores Insulae'' map of the [[ Azores Islands]] , by Luís Teixeira
File:Sebastião Lopes 1575.jpg|
The 1575 map of Portugal and its African colonies, by Sebastião Lopes
File:1554 lopo homen mapa mundi 03.jpg|
The 1554 map showing the global Portuguese Empire, by Lopo Homem
File:1563 lazaro luis 04 atlantic nord.jpg|
The 1563 map of the North Atlantic Portuguese Empire, by Lazaro Luis
File:Pedro Reinel 1504.jpg|
The 1504 map of North Africa and Europe, by Pedro Reinel
File:1583 sebastiao lopes (mapa mundi) 00.jpg|
The 1583 map of global European empires, by Sebastião Lopes