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Renesansa u Škotskoj bila je kulturološki, intelektualni i umjetnički pokret u Škotskoj, od kasnog petnaestog vijeka do početka sedamnaestog vijeka. Povezana je sa panevropskom renesansom za koju se obično smatra da je započela u Italiji u kasnom četrnaestom vijeku i da je prodrla do sjeverne Evrope u formi sjevernoevropske renesanse u petnaestom vijeku. Uključila je pokušaj oživljavanja principa klasičnog doba, uključujući humanizam, duh učenjačkog istraživanja, skepticizma i koncepata ravnoteže i proporcije. Historičari od dvadesetog vijeka izazivaju jedinstvenost i jedinstvo renesanse, ali značajne je u Škotskoj došlo do značajnih promjena u obrazovanju, intelektualnom životu, književnosti, umjetnosti, muzici, nauci i politici.

Dvor je bio centralan za pokroviteljstvo i širenje renesansnih djela i ideja. Također je bio centralan za izvođenje raskošnog prikaza koji je pokazivao političku i religijsku ulogu monarhije. Renesansa je dovela do prihvatanja ideja carske monarhije, potičući škotsku krunu da se pridruži novim monarhijama potvrdivši carsku nadležnost i istaknutost. Rastući akcenat na obrazovanje u srednjem vijeku postao je dijelom humanističkog i potom protestantskog programa za širenje i reformiranje učenja. Rezultirao je širenjem školskog sistema i osnivanjem šest univerzitetskih koledža do kraja šesnaestog vijeka. Relativno velik broj škotskih učenjaka studirao je na kontinentu ili u Engleskoj i neki, kao što su Hector Boece, John Mair, Andrew Melville i George Buchanan, vratili su se u Škotsku kako bi igrali veliku ulogu u razvoju škotskog intelektualnog života. Djela na narodnom jeziku (škotskom) počela su se javljati u petnaestom vijeku, dok je latinski ostao glavni književni jezik. Uz pokroviteljstvo James V i James VI, u pisce su spadali William Stewart, John Bellenden, David Lyndsay, William Fowler i Alexander Montgomerie.

U šesnaestom vijeku, škotski kraljevi – naročito James V – sagradili su palače u renesansnom stilu, počevši u Linlithgowu. Taj trend ubrzo se proširio na članove aristokratije. Slikarstvo je bilo pod snažnim utjecajem flamanske umjetnosti, sa djelima koja su se naručivala sa kontinenta i Flamancima koji su služili kao dvorski umjetnici. Dok je crkvena umjetnost ispaštala usljed ikonoklazma i gubitka pokroviteljstva kao rezultat reformacije, kućni ukrasi i portreti postali su značajni za bogate, pri čemu se George Jamesone uzdigao kao prvi veliki imenovani umjetnik u ranom sedamnaestom vijeku. Muzika je također pripojila šire evropske utjecaje iako je reformacija izazvala udaljavanje od složene polyphonic crkvene muzike prema prostijem pjevanju metričkih psalama. Zajedno sa Union of Crowns 1603. godine, reformacija je također uklonila crkvu i dvor kao izvore pokroviteljstva, promijenivši smjer umjetničkog stvaralaštva i ograničivši njegov obim. U ranom sedamnaestom vijeku glavni elementi renesanse počeli su ustupati mjesto stoicizmu, manirizmu i baroku.

Definicije i debate[uredi - уреди | uredi izvor]

Renesansa je koncept kojeg je formulirao kulturološki historičar Jacob Burckhardt sredinom devetnaestog vijeka kako bi opisao intelektualni i umjetnički pokret koji je započeo u Italiji u četrnaestom vijeku i donio pokušaj oživljavanja principa grčkih i rimskih klasičkih svjetova. Obuhvatao je racionalan i skeptičan stav, povratak idejama originalnih izvora i proporciji i ravnoteži u umjetnosti. Za glavne ideje renesanse smatra se da su dosegle sjevernu Evropu dosta kasnije, u petnaestom vijeku. Škotska se smatrala dijelom šire sjeverne renesanse za koju se obično smatra da se protezala do ranog sedamnaestog vijeka, kada su ju zamijenili grandiozniji stilovi baroka. Međutim, povezanost baroknih stilova sa kazolicizmom u pretežno protestantskoj Škotskoj obično je rezultiralo previđanjem tog trenda i period od oko 1620. do kraja sedamnaestog vijeka ponekada se karakteriše kao kasna renesansa.[1]

U dvadesetom vijeku, historičari su opovrgavali validnost koncepta renesanse kao jedinstvene reakcije na "mračno doba" srednjovjekovnog, kao jasnog razlaza od prošlosti[1] i kao jedinstvenog pokreta.[2] Umjesto toga naglašavali su mnoge intelektualne trendove i pokrete koji su došli prije nje, kao što je renesansa dvanaestog vijeka na kojoj je ona izgrađena. Nekada je također bilo često da historičari predlažu da je Škotska imala malo do nikakvog sudjelovanja u renesansi. U novije doba, značajne promjene u intelektualnom i kulturološkom životu tog perioda smatraju se formiranjem razvođa u škotskoj kulturološkoj historiji. Smatralo se da je to otvorilo put ka reformaciji i kasnije modernizaciji misli i društvenog života u Enlightenment i Industrial Revolution, kojima je Škotska dala značajan doprinos.[1]

Dvor i kraljevstvo[uredi - уреди | uredi izvor]

A red stone courtyard with a doorway in the middle background and an ornate fountain in the mid-ground.
Linlithgow Palace, rebuilt for James V to suggest an open-air Renaissance courtyard

Dvor je bio centralan za pokroviteljstvo i širenje renesansnih djela i ideja. Također je bio centralan za izvođenje raskošnog prikaza koji je prikazivao političku i religijsku ulogu monarhije. Taj prikaz često se povezivao sa idejama viteštva, koje je u tom periodu evoluiralo iz praktičnog vojnog etosa u više ornamentalan i počastan kult. Vukao je porijeklo iz klasične ere, pri čemu su Hector of Troy, Alexander the Great i Julius Caesar često prikazivani kao protovitezovi. Turniri su pružali jedan fokus prikaza, pri čemu su najpoznatiji bili Divlji vitez iz 1507. i Crna dama iz 1508. pod Jamesom IV. Također ih je sa entuzijazmom održavao James V koji je, ponosan na svoje članstvo u međunarodnim viteškim redovima, prikazivao njihove oznake na kapiji Palače Linlithgow.[3]

Tokom svoje kratke vladavine, Mary, Queen of Scots donijela je sa sobom mnoge složene dvorske aktivnosti sa kojima je odrasla na francuskom dvoru. Uvela je balove, maskenbale i proslave koje su pokazivale preporod monarhije i podržale nacionalno jedinstvo. Najsloženiji događaj bilo je krštenje budućeg Jamesa VI. u Stirling Castle 1566. godine, koje je organizirao njen francuski sluga Bastian Pagez. Ono je uključivalo složenu ikonografiju, zajedno sa klasičnim temama božice Astraee i oživljavanja klasičnog zlatnog doba, sa viteštvom Round Table. Za ceremonijom uslijedio je banket, lovovi, gozbe, pjesništvo, ples i teatar, kulminirajući priređenom opsadom i vatrometima.[3] Dvor se vratio kao centar kulture i učenja pod vladavinom Jamesa VI. On je održavao imidž kralja filozofa, dozivajući modele Davida, Solomona i Konstantina, što se moglo vidjeti u njegovom "radosnom ulasku" u Edinburgh 1579. godine. Najveći događaj njegove vladavine bilo je krštenje njegovog sina i nasljednika Princa Henryja 1595. godine. Za to je kraljevska kapela u zamku Stirling preuređena kako bi odražavala proporcije Solomonovog hrama. Započeta je trodnevna gozba, turnir i maskenbal sa ship of state čija su posada bila klasična božanstva i muses. Isplanirano od strane Williama Fowlera, bilo je dizajnirano da izgradi sliku kralja i podrži njegovo pravo na engleski i irski prijesto.[4]

Images of a silver coin: one side showing a crowned king and the other the heraldic lion rampant of Scotland on a shield, both surrounded by writing.
Groat of James V, showing him wearing an imperial closed crown

Nove ideje također su utjecale na poglede vlade, opisane kao nove ili renesansne monarhije, koja je naglašavala status i značaj monarha. Princip rimskog prava da je "kralj car u vlastitom kraljevstvu" može se vidjeti u Škotskoj od sredine petnaestog vijeka. Parlament je 1469. proveo čin kojim je proglašeno da James III posjeduje "punu jurisdikciju i carevanje unutar svoje kraljevine". Od 1480-ih kraljeva slika na njegovim srebrnim groats prikazivala ga je sa zatvorenom, povijenom imperial crown, umjesto otvorenog circlet srednjovjekovnih kraljeva, vjerojatno prva slika na kovanici svoje vrste izvan Italije. Ubrzo se počela pojavljivati u heraldici, na kraljevskim pečatima, rukopisima, skulpturama i kao crown steeples na crkvama sa vezama sa kraljem, kao što je St. Giles Cathedral, Edinburgh.[5] Prvi škotski monarh koji je nosio takvu krunu bio je James V., čija je dijadema perađena kako bi sadržavala i lukove 1532. godine. Uključeni su kada je rekonstruirana 1540. godine, opstajući u Crown of Scotland. Ideja carske monarhije naglašavala je dostojanstvo krune i uključivala njenu ulogu kao ujedinjujuće nacionalne snage, braneći državne granice i interese, kraljevsku nadmoć nad zakonom i istaknutu državnu crkvu unutar katoličke pričesti.[5] Nova monarhija također se može vidjeti u oslanjanju krune na "new men" umjesto velikih magnata, upotrebu sveštenstva kao oblika državne službe, razvoj stojećih oružanih snaga i mornarice.[6] Uvećanje monarhije doseglo je svoj najveći uspon u razvoju koncepta carske vladavine u božansko pravo pod vladavinom Jamesa VI.[4]

Obrazovanje[uredi - уреди | uredi izvor]

Škole[uredi - уреди | uredi izvor]

A black and white reproduction of a painting of a man with a bishop's mitre and crook praying, with a window in the background
William Elphinstone, bishop of Aberdeen, founder of the University of Aberdeen and probably the architect of the Education Act 1496

U ranom srednjem vijeku, formalno obrazovanje bilo je ograničeno na monastički život, ali od dvanaestog vijeka novi izvori obrazovanja su se počeli razvijati, sa pjesničkim i grammar schools. One su obično bile povezane sa katedralama ili collegiate church i bile su najčešće u gradovima u razvoju. Do kraja srednjeg vijeka gramatičke škole mogle su se pronaći u svim glavnim burghs i nekim manjim gradovima.[7] Također su postojale male škole, češće u ruralnim područjima i koje su pružale osnovno obrazovanje.[8] One su bile gotovo isključivo usmjerene na dječake, ali do kraja petnaestog vijeka u Edinburghu su također postojale škole za djevojčice. One su nekada opisivane kao "škole šivanja" i vjerojatno su podučavale žene laike ili kaluđerice.[7][8] Također je došlo do razvoja privatnog podučavanja u porodicama lordova i bogatih građana.[7] Rastući naglasak na obrazovanje u kasnom srednjem vijeku kulminirao je prihvatanjem Education Act 1496, kojim je određeno da svi sinovi barona i imućnih slobodnih posjednika trebaju pohađati gramatičke škole i koji je podržavao humanistički interes za učenje "savršenog latinskog". Sve je to rezultiralo povećanjem pismenosti, iako je bila većinom koncentrirana na muškarce i bogatu elitu,[7] sa možda 60 procenata pismenog plemstva do kraja petnaestog vijeka.[9]

Humanistički interes za širenje obrazovanja dijelili su protestantski reformatori, sa željom za bogobojaznim narodom umjesto obrazovanim građanima. First Book of Discipline je 1560. uspostavila plan za školu u svakoj parohiji, ali se pokazao finansijski nemogućim.[10] U gradovima stare škole su održavane, sa pjesničkim školama i više novih zadižbina koje su postale reformirane gramatičke škole ili obične parohijske škole. Škole je podržavala kombinacija crkvenih fondova, doprinosa od lokalnih heritors ili gradskih vijeća, te od roditelja koji su to mogli platiti. Inspekcije su vršile kirk sessions, koje su provjeravale kvalitet podučavanja i čistoću doktrine. Također je postojao velik broj nereguliranih "avanturistički škola", koje su ponekada ispunjavale lokalnu potrebu, a ponekada odvlačile učenike od službenih škola. Izvan osnovanih gradskih škola, majstor je često kombinirao svoju poziciju sa ostalim zaposlenjima, naročito nižim pozicijama unutar crkve, poput zapisničara.[11] Nastavni plan i program je u najboljem slučaju uključivao catechism, latinski, francuski, Classical literature i sport.[12] Tek je u kasnom sedamnaestom vijeku stvorena većinom gotova mreža parohijskih škola u Lowlands, a u Highlands osnovno obrazovanje je još uvijek nedostajalo u mnogim područjima do vremena kada je donesen Education Act 1696. godine, formirajući osnovu upravljanja tim sistemom do 1873. godine.[13]

Univerziteti[uredi - уреди | uredi izvor]

Renesansa dvanaestog vijeka rezultirala je pojavom nekih od glavnih intelektualnih ličnosti iz Škotske. Vjerojatno najznačajniji je bio John Duns Scotus (c. 1265–1308), sa velikim utjecajem na kasnu srednjovjekovnu religijsku misao.[14] Nakon izbijanja Wars of Independence 1296. godine, engleski univerziteti su bili većinom zatvoreni za Škote i kontinentalni univerziteti postali su značajniji.[15] Samo preko hiljadu Škota je indentificirano kao polaznika kontinentalnih univerziteta između dvanaestog vijeka i 1410. godine.[15] Neki škotski učenjaci postali su učitelji na kontinentalnim univerzitetima, kao što su Walter Wardlaw (preminuo 1387.) i Laurence de Lindores (1372?–1437).[15] Tu situaciju promijenilo je osnivanje University of St Andrews 1413. godine, University of Glasgow 1450. i University of Aberdeen 1495. godine.[7] Prvobitno, te institucije bile su stvorene za treniranje sveštenika, ali su ih sve više koristili laici koji su počeli izazivati sveštenički monopol administrativnih pozicija u vladi i zakonu.[15] U tom periodu škotski univerziteti nisu podučavali grčki, već su se fokusirali na metaphysics i stavljali veliko bespogovorno povjerenje u Aristotelova djela.[16] Oni koji su htjeli imati drugostepeno obrazovanje morali su ići drugdje. Škotski učenjaci nastavili su studirati na kontinentalnim i engleskim univerzitetima koji su ponovo otvoreni za Škote u kasnom petnaestom vijeku.[15]

A coloured painting showing a man in a cap and black gown over red clothes with writing materials on a table in front of him
Hector Boece (1465–1536), a major figure in European humanism, who returned to be the first principal of the University of Aberdeen

Već 1495. neki Škoti bili su u kontaktu sa vodećim ličnostima sjevernog humanističkog pokreta, holandskim Desiderius Erasmus (1466–1536). Također su bili u dodiru sa francuskim himanistom i učenjakom Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples (c. 1455 –1536). Erazmo je bio učitelj vanbračnog sina Jamesa VI. i arepiskopa sv. Andrewsa, Alexander Stewart (c. 1493–1513).[17] Ti međunarodni kontakti pomogli su u integraciji Škotske u širi evropski akademski svijet i bili su neki od najvažnijih načina na koje su nove ideje humanista donesene u škotski intelektualni život.[9] Do 1497. humanista i historičar Hector Boece, rođen u Dundeeju i koji je studirao u Parizu, vratio se i postao prvi direktor novog univerziteta u Aberdeenu.[15] Nastavljeno kretanje prema drugim univerzitetima stvorilo je školu škotskih nominalists u Parizu u ranom šesnaestom cijeku, od kojih je najvažniji bio John Mair, koji se generalno opisuje kao skolastik, ali čija je Historija Veće Britanije (1521) na latinskom bila simpatetična prema humanističkog društvenoj agendi.[18] Još jedna velika ličnost bio je Archibald Whitelaw, koji je podučavao pri Sv. Andrewsu i u Kelnu, postavši učitelj mladog Jamesa III. i kraljevski sekretar od 1462–93. Robert Reid, Abbot of Kinloss i kasnije Bishop of Orkney, bio je odgovoran u 1520-im i 1530-im za dovođenje talijanskog humaniste Giovannija Ferrarija da podučava u Kinloss Abbey, gdje je osnovao zadivljujući biblioteku i pisao djela o škotskoj historiji i biografije. Reid je također bio ključan u organiziranju javnih predavanja koja su osnovana u Edinburghu u 1540-im o zakonu, grčkom, latinskom i filozofiji, pod pokroviteljstvom Mary of Guise. Ona su se razvila u "Koledž Tounis", koji je 1582. postao University of Edinburgh.[19]

Nakon reformacije, škotski univerziteti prošli su kroz niz reformi koje se povezuju sa Andrew Melville, koji se vratio iz Genove kako bi postao direktor Univerziteta u Glasgowu 1574. godine. Pod utjecajem antiaristotelovca Petrus Ramus, stavio je naglasak na pojednostavljenu logiku, uzdigao jezike i nauke na status koji je uživala filozofija i prihvatio je da se ideje u svim područjima izazivaju.[16] Uveo je novo specijalizirano obrazovno osoblje, koje je zamijenillo sistem "obnavljanja", gdje je jedan učitelj studente provodio kroz čitav nastavni plan umjetnosti.[20] Metafizika je napuštena i grčki je postao obavezan na prvoj godini, a nakon njega Aramaic, Syriac i hebrejski jezik, pokrenuvši novu modu za antičkim i biblijskim jezicima. Glasgow je vjerojatno opadao kao univerzitet prije njegovog dolaska, ali su studenti sada počeli prisustvovati u velikom broju. Melville je potpomogao rekonstrukciju Marischal College, Aberdeen, i kako bi uradio za Sv. Andrews isto što je uradio za Glasgow, imenovan je direktorom St Mary's College, St Andrews 1580. godine. Rezultat toga bila je revitalizacija svih škotskih univerziteta, koji su sada stvarali kvalitetno obrazovanje jednako onom koje se pružalo bilo gdje u Evropi.[16]

U glavne intelektualne ličnosti reformacije spadao je George Buchanan. On je podučavao na univerzitetima u Francuskoj i Portugalu, prevodio tekstove sa grčkog na latinski i bio je učitelj mlade Mary, kraljice Škota za koju je pisao dvorsku muziku na latinskom i maskenbale. Nakon njenog svrgavanja 1567. godine, njegova djela De Jure Regni apud Scotos (1579) i Rerum Scoticarum Historia (1582) bili su među glavnim tekstovima koji su zagovarali otpor prema tiranima.[4] Buchanan je bio jedan od učitelja mladog Jamesa VI. i iako je pomogao u stvaranju visoko obrazovanog protestantskog princa, koji je stvarao djela o temama uključujući vladu, poeziju i vještičarenje, nije uspio uvjeriti kralja o svojim idejama o ograničenoj monarhiji. James je raspravljao i sa Buchananom i Melvilleom o statusu krune i crkve.[21]

Književnost[uredi - уреди | uredi izvor]

Glavni članak: Scottish literature
Crna štampa na požutjeloj pozadini prikazuje Adama i Evu sa drvetom između na kojem je štit sa inicijalima WC i imenom Walter Chapman odštampanim ispod.
Naslovna strana The Goldyn Targe (štampano 1508) Williama Dunbara

U kasnom petnaestom vijeku, škotska proza počela se razvijati kao žanr i pokazivati klasične i humanističke utjecaje.[22] Iako postoje raniji fragmenti izvorne škotske proze, kao što je Auchinleckska hronika,[23] a prva cjelovito očuvana djela spada The Meroure of Wyssdome (1490) Johna Irelanda.[24] Također su postojali prozni prijevodi francuskih knjiga koji su očuvani od 1450-ih, uključujući The Book of the Law of Armys i Order of Knychthode i traktat Secreta Secetorum, arapsko djelo za koje se vjeruje da su u pitanju Aristotelovi savjeti Aleksandru Velikom.[25]

Uspostavljanje štamparske mašine pod kraljevskim patentom od Jamesa IV. 1507. godine učinila je širenje škotske književnosti lakšom.[26] Znamenito djelo tokom vladavine Jamesa IV. bila je Gavin Douglasova verzija Vergilijeve Eneide, Eneados. Ona je bila prvi potpun prijevod velikog klasičnog teksta na anglijski jezik, završeno 1513. godine, ali zasjenjena nesrećom kod Floddena.[25] Mnogo srednjoškotske književnosti stvorili su makars, pjesnici sa vezama sa kraljevskim dvorom. Među njih spadao je James I. (koji je napisao The Kingis Quair). Mnogi makari imali su univerzitetsko obrazovanje i također su bili povezani sa Kirkom. Međutim, William Dunbarov Lament for the Makaris (c. 1505) pruža dokaze o široj tradiciji sekularnog pisanja izvan dvora i crkve koji je sada većinom izgubljen.[27] Prije pojave štampanja u Škotskoj, pisci kao poput Dunbara, Douglasa, zajedno sa Robertom Henrysonom i Walterom Kennedyjem, smatrali su se predvodnicima zlatnog doba u škotskoj poeziji. Nastavili su srednjovjekovne teme, ali su bili pod sve većim utjecajem novih kontinentalnih trendova i renesansnim jezikom i oblicima.[25]

Kao pokrovitelj, James V je podržavao pjesnike Williama Stewarta i Johna Bellendena. Stewart je stvorio stihovnu verziju latinske Historije Škotske koju je 1527. sastavio Boece[28], a Bellenden je stvorio prozni prijevod Livijeve Historije Rima 1533. godine.[19] Sir David Lindsay of the Mount the Lord Lyon, glava Lyon Court i diplomata, bio je plodan pjesnik. Stvorio je interludij u palači Linlithgow za koji se smatra da je verzija njegovog komada The Thrie Estaitis iz 1540. godine, prvog potpuno očuvanog škotskog komada, koji je satirizirao korupciju crkve i države,[28] koristeći elemente kao što su srednjovjekovne morality plays, sa humanističkom agendom.[19]

Tokom 1580-ih i 1590-ih James VI je promovirao književnost države svog rođenja. Njegov traktat, Neka pravila i upozorenja koja treba slijediti i izbjegavati u škotskoj prozodiji, objavljen 1584. kada mu je bilo 18 godine, bio je u isto vrijeme i pjesnički priručnik i opis pjesničke tradicije na njegovom rodnom jeziku, škotskom, na koje je primijenio renesansne principe.[29] Postao je pokrovitelj i član slobodnog kruga škotskih Jacobean dvorskih pjesnika i muzičara, Castalian Band, kojem su pripadali William Fowler i Alexander Montgomerie.[30] Do kasnih 1590-ih njegovo promoviranje svoje rodne škotske tradicije donekle je raspršeno mogućnošću nasljeđivanja engleskog prijestola,[31] i neki dvorski pjesnici koji su slijedili kralja u London poslije 1603. godine, kao što je William Alexander, počeli su anglicise svoj pisani jezik.[32] Jamesova karakteristična uloga kao aktivnog sudionika u književnosti i pokrovitelja na škotskom dvoru učinila ga je definirajućom ličnošću za pjesništvo i dramu engleske renesanse, koja je dosegla vrhunac dostignuća za vrijeme njegove vladavine,[33] ali njegovo pokroviteljstvo za visoki stil u svojoj vlastitoj škotskoj tradiciji većinom je stavljeno u drugi plan.[34]

Architecture[uredi - уреди | uredi izvor]

Glavni članak: Architecture of Scotland

The influence of the Renaissance on Scottish architecture has been seen as occurring in two distinct phases. The selective use of Romanesque forms in church architecture in the early fifteenth century was followed towards the end of the century by a phase of more directly influenced Renaissance palace building.[35] The re-adoption of low-massive church building with round arches and pillars, in contrast to the Gothic perpendicular style that was particularly dominant in England in the late medieval era, may have been influenced by close contacts with Rome and the Netherlands, and may have been a conscious reaction to English forms in favour of continental ones. It can be seen in the nave of Dunkeld Cathedral, begun in 1406, the facade of St Mary's, Haddington from the 1460s and in the chapel of Bishop Elphinstone's Kings College, Aberdeen (1500–9).[35] About forty collegiate churches were established in Scotland in late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries. Many, like Trinity College, Edinburgh, showed a combination of Gothic and Renaissance styles.[36]

The side of a stone building with windows and figures on pedestals.
The sculptural decoration of James V's place at Stirling Castle

The extensive building and rebuilding of royal palaces probably began under James III, accelerated under James IV, reaching its peak under James V. These works have been seen as directly reflecting the influence of Renaissance styles. Linlithgow was first constructed under James I, under the direction of master of work John de Waltoun. From 1429, it was referred to as a palace, apparently the first use of this term in the country. This was extended under James III and began to correspond to a fashionable quadrangular, corner-towered Italian signorial palace of a palatium ad moden castri (a castle-style palace), combining classical symmetry with neo-chivalric imagery. There is evidence of Italian masons working for James IV, in whose reign Linlithgow was completed and other palaces were rebuilt with Italianate proportions.[37] James V encountered the French version of Renaissance building while visiting for his marriage to Madeleine of Valois in 1536 and his second marriage to Mary of Guise may have resulted in longer term connections and influences.[38] Work from his reign largely disregarded the insular style prevalent in England under Henry VIII and adopted forms that were recognisably European, beginning with the extensive work at Linlithgow.[39] This was followed by rebuildings at Holyrood, Falkland, Stirling and Edinburgh,[40] described as "some of the finest examples of Renaissance architecture in Britain".[41] Rather than slavishly copying continental forms, most Scottish architecture incorporated elements of these styles into traditional local patterns,[40] adapting them to Scottish idioms and materials (particularly stone and harl).[42] Work undertaken for James VI demonstrated continued Renaissance influences, with the Chapel Royal at Stirling having a classical entrance built in 1594 and the North Wing of Linlithgow, built in 1618, using classical pediments. Similar themes can be seen in the private houses of aristocrats, as in Mar's Wark, Stirling (c. 1570) and Crichton Castle, built for the Earl of Bothwell in the 1580s.[43]

A stone church with a tower in a church yard with grave markers, which is partially covered with snow.
Cawdor church, built in 1619 on a Greek cross plan

New military architecture and the trace Italienne style was brought by Italian architects and military engineers during the war of the Rough Wooing and the regency of Mary of Guise including Migliorino Ubaldini who worked at Edinburgh Castle, Camillo Marini who designed forts on the borders, and Lorenzo Pomarelli who worked for Mary of Guise.[44] The unique style of great private houses in Scotland, later known as Scots baronial, has been located in origin to the period of the 1560s. It kept many of the features of the high walled Medieval castles that had been largely made obsolete by gunpowder weapons and may have been influenced by the French masons brought to Scotland to work on royal palaces. It drew on the tower houses and peel towers,[45] which had been built in hundreds by local lords since the fourteenth century, particularly in the borders. These abandoned defensible curtain walls for a fortified refuge, designed to outlast a raid, rather than a sustained siege.[46][47] They were usually of three stories, typically crowned with a parapet, projecting on corbels, continuing into circular bartizans at each corner.[48] New houses retained many of these external features, but with a larger ground plan, classically a "Z-plan" of a rectangular block with towers, as at Colliston Castle (1583) and Claypotts Castle (1569–88). Particularly influential was the work of William Wallace, the king's master mason from 1617 until his death in 1631. He worked on the rebuilding of the collapsed North Range of Linlithgow from 1618, Winton House for George Seton, 3rd Earl of Winton and began work on Heriot's Hospital, Edinburgh. He adopted a distinctive style that applied elements of Scottish fortification and Flemish influences to a Renaissance plan like that used at Château d'Ancy-le-Franc. This style can be seen in lords houses built at Caerlaverlock (1620), Moray House, Edinburgh (1628) and Drumlanrig Castle (1675–89), and was highly influential until the baronial style gave way to the grander English forms associated with Inigo Jones in the later seventeenth century.[45]

From about 1560, the Reformation revolutionised church architecture in Scotland. Calvinists rejected ornamentation in places of worship, with no need for elaborate buildings divided up by ritual, resulting in the widespread destruction of Medieval church furnishings, ornaments and decoration.[49] There was a need to adapt and build new churches suitable for reformed services, with greater emphasis on preaching and the pulpit. Many of the earliest buildings were simple gabled rectangles, a style that continued to be built into the seventeenth century, as at Dunnottar Castle in the 1580s, Greenock (1591) and Durness (1619). The church of Greyfriars, Edinburgh, built between 1602 and 1620, used this layout with a largely Gothic form while that at Dirleton (1612) had a more sophisticated classical style. A variation of the rectangular church that developed in post-Reformation Scotland was the "T"-shaped plan, often used when adapting existing churches as it allowed the maximum number of parishioners to be near the pulpit. Examples can be seen at Kemback in Fife (1582) and Prestonpans after 1595. The "T" plan continued to be used into the seventeenth century as at Weem (1600), Anstruther Easter, Fife (1634–44) and New Cumnock (1657). In the seventeenth century a Greek cross plan was used for churches such as Cawdor (1619) and Fenwick (1643). In most of these cases one arm of the cross was closed off as a laird's aisle, with the result that they were in effect "T"-plan churches.[50]

Art[uredi - уреди | uredi izvor]

Glavni članak: Scottish art

We know almost nothing about native Scottish artists in the Middle Ages. As in England, the monarchy may have had model portraits of royalty used for copies and reproductions, but the versions of native royal portraits that survive from the late Middle Ages are generally crude by continental standards.[51] Much more impressive are the works or artists imported from the continent, particularly the Netherlands, generally considered the centre of painting in the Northern Renaissance.[51] The products of these connections included a fine portrait of William Elphinstone;[52] the images of St Catherine and St John brought to Dunkeld; Hugo van Der Goes's altarpiece for the Trinity College Church in Edinburgh, commissioned by James III; and the work after which the Flemish Master of James IV of Scotland is named.[51] There are also a relatively large number of elaborate devotional books from the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries, usually produced in the Low Countries and France for Scottish patrons. These included the prayer book commissioned by Robert Blackadder, Bishop of Glasgow, between 1484 and 1492[52] and the Flemish illustrated book of hours, known as the Hours of James IV of Scotland, given by James IV to Margaret Tudor and described as "perhaps the finest medieval manuscript to have been commissioned for Scottish use".[53]

Four wooden beams with three sets of coloured paintings between them, made up of fruit, flowers and other patterns.
The seventeenth-century painted ceiling at Aberdour Castle, Fife

Surviving stone and wood carvings, wall paintings and tapestries suggest the richness of sixteenth century royal art. At Stirling Castle, stone carvings on the royal palace from the reign of James V are taken from German patterns,[54] and like the surviving carved oak portrait roundels from the King's Presence Chamber, known as the Stirling Heads, they include contemporary, biblical and classical figures.[55] Some decorative wood carvings were made by French craftsmen, who like Andrew Mansioun, settled in Scotland.[56] Scotland's ecclesiastical art paid a heavy toll as a result of Reformation iconoclasm, with the almost total loss of medieval stained glass, religious sculpture and paintings. The parallel loss of patronage created a crisis for native craftsmen and artists, who turned to secular patrons. One result of this was the flourishing of Scottish Renaissance painted ceilings and walls, with large numbers of private houses of burgesses, lairds and lords gaining often highly detailed and coloured patterns and scenes. Over a hundred examples are known to have existed, and surviving paintings include the ceiling at Prestongrange, undertaken in 1581 for Mark Kerr, Commendator of Newbattle, and the long gallery at Pinkie House, painted for Alexander Seaton, Earl of Dunfermline, in 1621. These were undertaken by unnamed Scottish artists using continental pattern books that often led to the incorporation of humanist moral and philosophical symbolism, with elements that call on heraldry, piety, classical myths and allegory.[57]

In 1502 Henry VII sent his Flemish portrait painter Maynard Wewyck to the court of James IV and Margaret Tudor.[58] Later in the sixteenth-century anonymous artists made portraits of important individuals, including the Earl of Bothwell and his first wife Jean Gordon (1566), and George, 7th Lord Seton (c. 1575).[59] The tradition of royal portrait painting in Scotland was probably disrupted by minorities and regencies between 1513 and 1579.[60] James VI employed two Flemish artists, Arnold Bronckorst (floruit, in Scotland, 1580–1583) and Adrian Vanson (fl. 1581–1602), who have left us a visual record of the king and major figures at the court. The first significant native artist was George Jamesone of Aberdeen (1589/90-1644), who became one of the most successful portrait painters of the reign of Charles I and trained the Baroque artist John Michael Wright (1617–94).[57]

Music[uredi - уреди | uredi izvor]

V. također: Early music of the British Isles
The interior of the Chapel Royal, Stirling Castle, a major focus for liturgical music

The captivity of James I in England from 1406 to 1423, where he earned a reputation as a poet and composer, may have led him to take English and continental styles and musicians back to the Scottish court on his release.[61] In the late fifteenth century a series of Scottish musicians trained in the Netherlands, then the centre of musical production in Western Europe, before returning home. They included John Broune, Thomas Inglis and John Fety, the last of whom became master of the song school in Aberdeen and then Edinburgh, introducing the new five-fingered organ playing technique.[62] In 1501 James IV refounded the Chapel Royal within Stirling Castle, with a new and enlarged choir and it became the focus of Scottish liturgical music. Burgundian and English influences were probably reinforced when Henry VII's daughter Margaret Tudor married James IV in 1503.[63] The outstanding Scottish composer of the first half of the sixteenth century was Robert Carver (c. 1488–1558), a canon of Scone Abbey. Five masses and two votive antiphons have survived in his choirbook. One of the masses provides the only example of the use of the continental fashion of the cantus firmus to have survived in Britain. The antiphon "Oh Bone Jesu" was scored for 19 voices, perhaps to commemorate the 19th year of the reign of James V. His complex polyphonic music could only have been performed by a large and highly trained choir such as the one employed in the Chapel Royal. James V was also a patron to figures including David Peebles (c. 1510–79?), whose best known work "Si quis diligit me" (text from John 14:23), is a motet for four voices. These were probably only two of many accomplished composers of their times, their work surviving largely in fragments.[64]

In this era Scotland followed the trend of Renaissance courts for instrumental accompaniment and playing. Accounts indicate that there were lutanists at the court from the reign of James III and in the houses of the great lords and clergymen. Instruments also appear in art of the period, with a ceiling at Crathes Castle showing muses with lute, bass viol, fiddle, harp, cittern, flute and clavicord, similar to a mixed consort found in England in this period.[65] Music also became one of the accomplishments of the Renaissance courtier and even royalty.[66] James IV entertained his bride Margaret Tudor during their marriage celebrations by playing "the clarychords and lute" and Margaret herself had been taught the lute as a child. James V, as well as being a major patron of sacred music, was a talented lute player and introduced French chansons and consorts of viols to his court, although almost nothing of this secular chamber music survives.[67]

A colour painting of a woman in a red sixteenth century dress playing a lute and looking at a book of music on a covered table, a decorated object can be seen in a window niche in the background.
The playing of instruments, including the lute, became one of the major accomplishments expected of a Renaissance courtier.

The Reformation would severely affect church music. The song schools of the abbeys, cathedrals and collegiate churches were closed down, choirs disbanded, music books and manuscripts destroyed and organs removed from churches.[57] The Lutheranism that influenced the early Scottish Reformation attempted to accommodate Catholic musical traditions into worship, drawing on Latin hymns and vernacular songs. The most important product of this tradition in Scotland was The Gude and Godlie Ballatis, which were spiritual satires on popular ballads composed by the brothers James, John and Robert Wedderburn. Never adopted by the kirk, they nevertheless remained popular and were reprinted from the 1540s to the 1620s. Later the Calvinism that came to dominate the Scottish Reformation was much more hostile to Catholic musical tradition and popular music, placing an emphasis on what was biblical, which meant the Psalms. The Scottish psalter of 1564 was commissioned by the Assembly of the Church. It drew on the work of French musician Clément Marot, Calvin's contributions to the Strasbourg psalter of 1529 and English writers, particularly the 1561 edition of the psalter produced by William Whittingham for the English congregation in Geneva. The intention was to produce individual tunes for each psalm, but of 150 psalms, 105 had proper tunes and in the seventeenth century, common tunes, which could be used for psalms with the same metre, became more common. The need for simplicity for whole congregations that would now all sing these psalms, unlike the trained choirs who had sung the many parts of polyphonic hymns,[68] necessitated simplicity and most church compositions were confined to homophonic settings.[69] There is some evidence that polyphony survived and was incorporated into editions of the psalter from 1625, but usually with the congregation singing the melody and trained singers the contra-tenor, treble and bass parts.[68]

The return of James V's daughter Mary from France in 1561 to begin her personal reign, and her position as a Catholic, gave a new lease of life to the choir of the Scottish Chapel Royal, but the destruction of Scottish church organs meant that instrumentation to accompany the mass had to employ bands of musicians with trumpets, drums, fifes, bagpipes and tabors.[70] Like her father she played the lute, virginals and (unlike her father) was a fine singer.[70] She brought French musical influences with her, employing lutenists and viol players in her household.[71] James VI was a major patron of the arts in general. He made statutory provision to reform and promote the teaching of music,[72] attempting to revive burgh song schools from 1579.[57] He rebuilt the Chapel Royal at Stirling in 1594 and the choir was used for state occasions like the baptism of his son Henry.[73] He followed the tradition of employing lutenists for his private entertainment, as did other members of his family.[74] When he went south to take the throne of England in 1603 as James I, he removed one of the major sources of patronage in Scotland. Beginning to fall into disrepair, the Scottish Chapel Royal was now used only for occasional state visits, leaving the court in Westminster as the only major source of royal musical patronage.[73]

Opadanje i utjecaj[uredi - уреди | uredi izvor]

A colour painting of a man with white hair that may be a wig, in a dark gown with white sleeves and collar, he holds a book in his hand.
Francis Hutcheson (1694–1746), a major figure in the Scottish Enlightenment, product of the Scottish university system and humanist tradition that had their origins in the Renaissance.

Smatra se da je renesansa u Škotskoj dosegla svoj vrhunac u prvoj polovini šesnaestog vijeka, između vladavina Jamesa IV. i uklanjanja Mary, Queen of Scots. Gubitak crkve kao izvora pokroviteljstva tokom 1560-ih i dvora 1603. promijenio je i ograničio daljnji razvoj renesansnih ideja. U istom periodu građanski humanizam je počeo ustupati mjesto privatnom posvećivanju i povlačenju od svijetskog utjecaja u formi stoicizma. U umjetnosti i arhitekturi, renesansne proporcije počele su ustupati mjesto manirizmu i pretjeranijem stilu baroka od oko 1620. godine.[75]

Naslijeđe renesanse može se vidjeti u transformaciji vladajuće elite u škotskom društvu iz ratničke kaste u jednu sa razrađenijim moralom i vrijednostima.[76] Humanizam je stvorio prihvatanje značaja učenja, što je doprinijelo naslijeđu škotske škole i sistema univerziteta.[77] Konkretno, 1496 Education Act se smatra osnivajućim presedanom za javni sistem obrazovanja, kojeg su reformisti prihvatili 1560. i informirali kasnije zakonodavstvo i širenje.[78] Osnivanje škotskih univerziteta, naročito humanističkih reformi povezanih sa Melvilleom, omogućilo je Škotskoj da sudjeluje u "obrazovnoj revoluciji" ranog modernog doba i bilo je od vitalnog značaja za razvoj Enlightenment in Scotland.[79] Te okolnosti su prema Davidu McCroneu učinile obrazovanje "neophodnim za smisao škotskosti".[80]

Renesansa je ostavila naslijeđe u intelektualnim područjima uključujući poeziju, historijsko pisanje i arhitekturu, koje se nastavilo u sedamnaestom i osamnaestom vijeku.[81] Pojavljivao se rastući broj škotskih učenjaka koji su imali rastuće samopouzdanje u svoju vlastitu književnost.[82] Dio objašnjenja za iznenadan procvat škotskog prosvjetiteljstva je da je ta država već imala historiju postignuća u filozofiji, pjesništvu, muzici, matematici i arhitekturi i da je bila u bliskom dodiru sa intelektualnim trendovima u ostatku Evrope.[83] U tom periodu Škotska je ostavila velik doprinos poljima medicine, zakona, filozofije, geologije i historije.[79] Među tim idejama ograničavanje kraljevske suverenosti nad narodom ostalo je prisutno u škotskom intelektualnom životu i ponovo se pojavilo i doprinijelo glavnim raspravama osamnaestog vijeka.[84]

Povezano[uredi - уреди | uredi izvor]

Bilješke[uredi - уреди | uredi izvor]

  1. 1,0 1,1 1,2 A. Thomas, "The Renaissance", u T. M. Devine i J. Wormald, The Oxford Handbook of Modern Scottish History (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012), ISBN 0-19-162433-0, str. 185–7.
  2. J. Wormald, Court, Kirk, and Community: Scotland, 1470–1625 (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1991), ISBN 0-7486-0276-3, str. 56.
  3. 3,0 3,1 A. Thomas, "The Renaissance", u T. M. Devine i J. Wormald, The Oxford Handbook of Modern Scottish History (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012), ISBN 0-19-162433-0, str. 192–3.
  4. 4,0 4,1 4,2 A. Thomas, "The Renaissance", u T. M. Devine i J. Wormald, The Oxford Handbook of Modern Scottish History (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012), ISBN 0-19-162433-0, str. 200.
  5. 5,0 5,1 A. Thomas, "The Renaissance", u T. M. Devine i J. Wormald, The Oxford Handbook of Modern Scottish History (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012), ISBN 0-19-162433-0, str. 188.
  6. J. D. Mackie, B. Lenman and G. Parker, A History of Scotland (London: Penguin, 1991), ISBN 0-14-013649-5.
  7. 7,0 7,1 7,2 7,3 7,4 P. J. Bawcutt i J. H. Williams, A Companion to Medieval Scottish Poetry (Woodbridge: Brewer, 2006), ISBN 1-84384-096-0, str. 29–30.
  8. 8,0 8,1 M. Lynch, Scotland: A New History (New York, NY: Random House, 2011), ISBN 1-4464-7563-8, str. 104–7.
  9. 9,0 9,1 J. Wormald, Court, Kirk, and Community: Scotland, 1470–1625 (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1991), ISBN 0-7486-0276-3, str. 68–72.
  10. R. A. Houston, Scottish Literacy and the Scottish Identity: Illiteracy and Society in Scotland and Northern England, 1600–1800 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002), ISBN 0-521-89088-8, str. 5.
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  23. Thomas Thomson ed., Auchinleck Chronicle (Edinburgh, 1819).
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Vanjske poveznice[uredi - уреди | uredi izvor]