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Jezička izdanja[uredi - уреди | uredi kôd]

Trenutno postoji 288 jezičkih izdanja Wikipedije (također poznatih kao jezičke verzije ili jednostavno Wikipedije). Dvanaest od njih ima preko milion članaka (engleska, švedska, danska, njemačka, francuska, waray-warayska, ruska, cebuanska, talijanska, španska, vijetnamska i poljska), a tri imaju preko 700 000 članaka (japanska, portugalska i kineska), još 36 ima preko 100 000 članaka, a 77 preko 10 000 članaka.[1][2] Najveća, engleska Wikipedija, ima preko 0.4 miliona članaka. U maju 2015, prema Alexi, engleski poddomen (en.wikipedia.org; engleska Wikipedija) prima oko 58% Wikipedijinog cjelokupnog prometa, dok je ostatak podijeljen među ostalim jezicima (japanska: 8%; španska: 7%; njemačka: 5%; ruska: 4%).[3] Od decembar 2021, šest najvećih jezičkih izdanja su (redoslijedom prema broju članaka) English, Cebuano, Swedish, German, French i Dutch.[4] Šablon:Pie chart

Logarithmic graph of the 20 largest language editions of Wikipedia
(as of 6 decembar 2021)[5]
(millions of articles)
0.1 0.3 1 3

English 6.418.539
Cebuano 6.064.667
Swedish 2.859.276
German 2.639.097
French 2.379.169
Dutch 2.073.200
Russian 1.776.162
Spanish 1.735.634
Italian 1.729.160
Polish 1.498.807
Egyptian Arabic 1.442.216
Japanese 1.303.623
Vietnamese 1.269.370
Waray-Waray 1.265.590
Chinese 1.243.559
Arabic 1.147.204
Ukrainian 1.126.287
Portuguese 1.078.231
Persian 848.197
Catalan 691.222

The unit for the numbers in bars is articles. Budući da se Wikipedija nalazi na Web-u i da je stoga dostupna u cijelom svijetu, saradnici istog jezičkog izdanja mogu koristiti različite dijalekte ili biti iz različitih država (kao što je slučaj sa engleskim izdanjem). Te razlike mogu dovesti do sukoba zbog razlika u pisanju[6] ili tačkama gledišta.[7]

Iako različita jezička izdanja podržavaju globalne politike poput "neutralne tačke gledišta", razilaze se u nekim političkim tačkama i praksama, prije svega u tome da li se slike koje ne spadaju u slobodni sadržaj smiju koristiti pod tvrdnjom poštene upotrebe.[8][9][10]

Jimmy Wales je opisao Wikipediju kao "pokušaj stvaranja i raspodjele slobodne enciklopedije najviše moguće kvalitete svakoj osobi na planeti na njenom vlastitom jeziku".[11] Iako svako jezičko izdanje funkcionira manje-više neovisno, ulaže se određeni napor da se one sve nadgledaju. Dijelom ih koordinira Meta-Wiki, wiki Fondacije Wikimedia posvećena održavanju svih njenih projekata (Wikipedije i ostalih).[12] Na primjer, Meta-Wiki pruža važne statistike na svim jezičkim izdanjima Wikipedije[13] i održava popis članaka koje bi svaka Wikipedija trebala imati.[14] Taj popis tiče se osnovnog sadržaja po temi: biografija, historija, geografija, društvo, kultura, nauka, tehnologija i matematika. Što se tiče ostalog, nerijetko se dešava da članci sa snažnom vezom s određenim jezikom nemaju svoje dvojnike u drugim izdanjima. Na primjer, članci o malenim gradovima u Sjedinjenim Državama možda će biti dostupni samo na engleskom, čak i kada ispunjavaju kriterij znamenitosti na Wikipedijinim projektima na drugim jezicima.

Procjena udjela doprinosa iz različitih dijelova svijeta različitim izdanjima Wikipedije

Prevedeni članci predstavljaju samo mali udio članaka u većini izdanja, dijelom stoga što je sasvim automatsko prevođenje članaka zabranjeno.[15] Članci dostupni na više od jednom jeziku mogu pružati "interwiki poveznice", koje povezuju dvojnike tih članaka na drugim izdanjima.

Istraživanje koje je 2012. objavio PLOS ONE također je procijenilo udio doprinosa na različitim izdanjima Wikipedije iz različitih regija svijeta. Naveo je da je udio uređivanja iz Sjeverne Amerike bio 51% na engleskoj Wikipediji i 25% na pojednostavljenoj engleskoj Wikipediji.[16] Fondacija Wikimedia nada se povećanju broja urednika na globalnom jugu do 37% do 2015. godine.[17]

1. marta 2014. godine The Economist je u članku "Budućnost Wikipedije (en. "The Future of Wikipedia") naveo analizu trenda po pitanju podataka koje Wikimedia objavljuje, izjavivši sljedeće: "Broj urednika za verziju na engleskom jeziku za sedam je godina opao za trećinu."[18] Stopa osipanja za aktivne urednike engleske Wikipedije prema The Economistu je znatno u kontrastu sa statistikama Wikipedije na drugim jezicima (neengleskim Wikipedijama). The Economist navodi da je broj suradnika sa u prosjeku pet ili više izmjena mjesečno ostao relativno konstantan od 2008. za Wikipedije na drugim jezicima, sa oko 42 000 urednika uz uske sezonske varijacije od 2000 urednika više ili manje. Stopa osipanja za urednike na engleskoj Wikipediji, za oštru usporedbu, dostigla je vrhunac 2007. sa prosječno 50 000 urednika, čiji je broj do početka 2014. opao na 30 000. Sa navedenom stopom tog trenda, broj aktivnih urednika na engleskoj Wikipediji od 2007. opao je za oko 20 000, a zabilježena stopa ukazuje na gubitak još 20 000 urednika do 2021. godine, te da će na engleskoj Wikipediji ostati samo 10 000 aktivnih urednika do 2021. ukoliko taj trend ne oslabi.[18] S obzirom na to da ta analiza objavljena u časopisu The Economist predstavlja broj aktivnih urednika za Wikipedije na drugim jezicima (neengleske Wikipedije) kao relativno konstantan i uspješan u održavanju na oko 42 000 aktivnih urednika, kontrast je ukazao na efikasnost Wikipedija na drugim jezicima da zadrži aktivne urednike na obnovljivoj i održivoj osnovi.[18] Nije bilo komentara po pitanju toga koji bi od različitih standarda politike uređivanja sa Wikipedija na drugim jezicima (neengleskih Wikipedija) pružili moguću alternativu engleskoj Wikipediji u svrhu efikasnog poboljšavanja situacije sa znatnom stopom osipanja urednika.[19]

Historija[uredi - уреди | uredi kôd]

Glavni članak: Historija Wikipedije
Jimmy Wales i Larry Sanger
Logo reading "Nupedia.com the free encyclopedia" in blue with large initial "N".
Wikipedija se izvorno razvila iz drugog enciklopedijskog projekta, Nupedije.

Prije Wikipedije bilo je još pokušaja stvaranja kolaborativnih online enciklopedija, ali ni jedan nije bio uspješan.[20]

Wikipedija je nastala kao komplementarni projekat za Nupediju, slobodni online enciklopedijski projekat na engleskom čije su članke pisali stručnjaci i potom pregledali pod službenim procesom. Nupedija je osnovana 9. marta 2000. pod vlasništvom Bomisa, web portal kompanije. Njezine glavne ličnosti bili su glavni izvršni direktor Bomisa, Jimmy Wales, i glavni urednik Larry Sanger, isprva za Nupediju, a kasnije i Wikipediju. Nupedija je prvobitno licencirana pod vlastitom Nupedia licencom za slobodni sadržaj, a prije osnivanja Wikipedije na zahtjev Richarda Stallmana prihvaćena je GNU licenca za slobodnu dokumentaciju.[21] Sanger i Wales su zajedno osnovali Wikipediju.[22][23] Dok je Wales zaslužan za definiranje cilja stvaranja javno uredive enciklopedije,[24][25] Sanger je zaslužan za strategiju korištenja wikija za postizanje tog cilja.[26] Sanger je 10. januara 2001. na spisku adresa Nupedije predložio stvaranje wikija kao "ulagački" projekat za Nupediju.[27]

Eksterni audio
The Great Book of Knowledge, Part 1, Ideas with Paul Kennedy, CBC, January 15, 2014

Wikipedija je službeno pokrenuta 15. januara 2001. kao jedino, englesko izdanje, na www.wikipedia.com,[28] što je Sanger obznanio putem spiska adresa Nupedije.[24] Wikipedijina politika "neutralne tačke gledišta"[29] šifrovana je tokom njezinih prvih mjeseci. Pored toga, isprva nije bilo mnogo pravila, te je Wikipedija funkcionirala odvojeno od Nupedije.[24] Bomis je prvobitno htio učiniti Wikipediju poslom za dobit.[30]

Wikipedija je dobila rane saradnike sa Nupedije, Slashdot objave i indeksiranje na web pretraživaču. Do 8. augusta 2001. Wikipedija je imala preko 8000 članaka.[31] 25. septembra 2001. je imala preko 13 000 članaka.[32] Do kraja 2001. narasla je do oko 20 000 članaka i imala 18 jezičkih izdanja. Dostigla je 26 jezičkih izdanja do kasne 2002. godine, 46 do kraja 2003. i 161 u posljednjim danima 2004. godine.[33] Nupedija i Wikipedija koegzistirale su dok serveri prve nisu ukinuti za stalno 2003. godine, nakon čega su njezini tekstovi pripojeni Wikipediji. Engleska Wikipedija prešla je granicu od dva miliona članaka 9. septembra 2007. godine, čime je postala najveća enciklopedija ikada stvorena, prevazišavši čak i Youngle Enciklopediju iz 1408. godine, koja je držala taj rekord 600 godina.[34]

Citing fears of commercial advertising and lack of control in Wikipedia, users of the Spanish Wikipedia forked from Wikipedia to create the Enciclopedia Libre in February 2002.[35] These moves encouraged Wales to announce that Wikipedia would not display advertisements, and to change Wikipedia's domain from wikipedia.com to wikipedia.org.[36]

Though the English Wikipedia reached three million articles in August 2009, the growth of the edition, in terms of the numbers of articles and of contributors, appears to have peaked around early 2007.[37] Around 1,800 articles were added daily to the encyclopedia in 2006; by 2013 that average was roughly 800.[38] A team at the Palo Alto Research Center attributed this slowing of growth to the project's increasing exclusivity and resistance to change.[39] Others suggest that the growth is flattening naturally because articles that could be called "low-hanging fruit"—topics that clearly merit an article—have already been created and built up extensively.[40][41][42]

In November 2009, a researcher at the Rey Juan Carlos University in Madrid (Spain) found that the English Wikipedia had lost 49,000 editors during the first three months of 2009; in comparison, the project lost only 4,900 editors during the same period in 2008.[43][44] The Wall Street Journal cited the array of rules applied to editing and disputes related to such content among the reasons for this trend.[45] Wales disputed these claims in 2009, denying the decline and questioning the methodology of the study.[46] Two years later, Wales acknowledged the presence of a slight decline, noting a decrease from "a little more than 36,000 writers" in June 2010 to 35,800 in June 2011.[47] In the same interview, Wales also claimed the number of editors was "stable and sustainable", a claim which was questioned by MIT's Technology Review in a 2013 article titled "The Decline of Wikipedia."[48] In July 2012, the Atlantic reported that the number of administrators is also in decline.[49] In the November 25, 2013, issue of New York magazine, Katherine Ward stated "Wikipedia, the sixth-most-used website, is facing an internal crisis. In 2013, MIT's Technology Review revealed that since 2007, the site has lost a third of the volunteer editors who update and correct the online encyclopedia's millions of pages and those still there have focused increasingly on minutiae."[50]

Wikipedia blackout protest against SOPA on January 18, 2012
A promotional video of the Wikimedia Foundation that encourages viewers to edit Wikipedia, mostly reviewing 2014 via Wikipedia content

In January 2007, Wikipedia entered for the first time the top-ten list of the most popular websites in the United States, according to comScore Networks. With 42.9 million unique visitors, Wikipedia was ranked number 9, surpassing the New York Times (#10) and Apple (#11). This marked a significant increase over January 2006, when the rank was number 33, with Wikipedia receiving around 18.3 million unique visitors.[51] In March 2015, Wikipedia has rank 6[3][52] among websites in terms of popularity according to Alexa Internet. In 2014, it received 8 billion pageviews every month.[53] On February 9, 2014, The New York Times reported that Wikipedia has 18 billion page views and nearly 500 million unique visitors a month, "according to the ratings firm comScore."[54]

On January 18, 2012, the English Wikipedia participated in a series of coordinated protests against two proposed laws in the United States Congress—the Stop Online Piracy Act (SOPA) and the PROTECT IP Act (PIPA)—by blacking out its pages for 24 hours.[55] More than 162 million people viewed the blackout explanation page that temporarily replaced Wikipedia content.[56][57]

Loveland and Reagle argue that, in process, Wikipedia follows a long tradition of historical encyclopedias that accumulated improvements piecemeal through "stigmergic accumulation".[58][59]

On January 20, 2014, Subodh Varma reporting for The Economic Times indicated that not only had Wikipedia growth flattened but that it has "lost nearly 10 per cent of its page-views last year. That's a decline of about 2 billion between December 2012 and December 2013. Its most popular versions are leading the slide: page-views of the English Wikipedia declined by 12 per cent, those of German version slid by 17 per cent and the Japanese version lost 9 per cent."[60] Varma added that, "While Wikipedia's managers think that this could be due to errors in counting, other experts feel that Google's Knowledge Graphs project launched last year may be gobbling up Wikipedia users."[60] When contacted on this matter, Clay Shirky, associate professor at New York University and fellow at Harvard's Berkman Center for internet and Security indicated that he suspected much of the page view decline was due to Knowledge Graphs, stating, "If you can get your question answered from the search page, you don't need to click [any further]."[60]

[[File:EnwikipediaGom.PNG

|center|border|330x220px|alt=Graph of number of articles in the English Wikipedia showing steady growth|Number of articles in the English Wikipedia (in blue)

]]
Number of articles in the English Wikipedia (in blue)  
[[File:EnwikipediagrowthGom.PNG

|center|border|330x220px|alt=Growth of the number of articles in the English Wikipedia showing a max around 2007|Growth of the number of articles in the English Wikipedia (in blue)

]]
Growth of the number of articles in the English Wikipedia (in blue)  
[[File:Time Between Edits Graph Jul05-Present.png

|center|border|330x220px|alt=Graph showing the number of days between every 10,000,000th edit (ca. 50 days), from 2005 to 2011|Number of days between every 10,000,000th edit from 2005 to 2012

]]
Number of days between every 10,000,000th edit from 2005 to 2012  


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