Jovan Milenko Grčić
Jovan Milenko Grčić je srpski pesnik i doktor medicine rođen u Čereviću 9. decembra 1846, a umro 10. juna 1875. godine. Otac mu Teodor Grčki bio je trgovac, ali je mlad umro (1850), ostavivši ženu Anu rođ. Barako sa troje dece (uz Jovana, Đorđa i Katicu). Srpsku osnovnu školu završio je u Čereviću, u nemačku išao u Petrovaradinu. Pet razreda gimnazije završio je u Novom Sadu, završna tri razreda u Segedinu i Požunu/Bratislavi (1864-67), tada već pod prezimenom Grčić. U Beču je studirao medicinu kao stipendista Matice srpske (1867-74).
Zbog tuberkuloze, koja mu je od detinjstva pretila, prekinuo je studije i vratio se majci, koja ga je smestila u šumsku tišinu Beočinskog manastira gde je i umro. Sahranjen je uz manastirsku crkvu sa Zmajevim stihovima na spomeniku (...Gora ti čuva telo, a spomen Srpstvo celo!). Njegovi zaostali rukopisi izgoreli su u ratu 1914.
Jovan Milenko Grčić[uredi - уреди]
Jovan Milenko Grčić (Čerević, Srem, 15 November 1846-Fruska Gora, Beočin monastery, 25 May 1875) was first and foremost a Serbian poet and then a prose writer. The freshness of his lyrical poetry places him in the succession of Branko Radicevic and he is also noted for his power of natural description. Jovan Grcic-Milenko translated Goethe, Schiller and Heine into Serbian, and some of his own poems into German.
Biography[uredi - уреди]
Jovan Grčić was born in the village of Čerević in the municipality of Beočin in Srem, Vojvodina (Serbia) on the 15th of November 1846, the oldest of three children (Jovan, Djordje and Katica) of Todor and Ana Grcki, who were of mixed Serbian and Vlach origin. His father Todor, a merchant, died young (1850), leaving his wife to raise the children. Jovan was educated in Serbian in Čerević, German in Petrovaradin, Novi Sad, Segedin and Pozun (Bratislava).
In 1863 Jovan Grcki began his brief but sensational career as a lyric poet -- a career which was over by the time he was twenty-nine. The first five years he wrote five books of verse and three short stories. He began with "Ne boj mi se" (Fear me not), a poem which appeared in the literary periodical Danica in 1863. He was a regular contributor with translations from German from 1864 to 1867.
He left Pozun in his seventeenth year. Instead of proceeding to the university, he went to visit his parents back home, in Čerević. There he fell in love with the stunning young Milena Stefanović, and through her parents he became acquainted with physician and poet Jovan Jovanović Zmaj, Milan Kujundžić-Aberdar, Laza Kostić, Antonije Hadžić, and other men of letters of the time.
Milena Stefanović died suddenly at the age of 16 (1863) while Jovan was away preparing for his medical studies in Pozun. Shocked and horrified by Milena's sudden death, he began seriously writing poems, dedicating an entire cycle of poems to her memory. He wrote,
"From your name 'Mileno' .... I baptize myself 'Milenko'."
He would eventually change his surname Grčki to Grčić and add his first love's name to his. It was from then on that he was known as -Jovan Grčić-Milenko In 1867 he moved from Pozun to Vienna, to continue his medical studies at the University of Vienna's School of Medicine. There he became seriously ill and had to drop out before graduating. In 1873 he returned to his native village of Čerević, but his illness -- tuberculosis -- progressed so much so that Abbot German (Jovanovic), a friend of the family, intervened and took Jovan to Beočin monastery, where he could receive better care in the monastery clinic than at home. He died in the Beočin monastery in Fruska Gora on the 25th of May 1875 at the age of 29. He was buried near the entrance of the monastery. The funeral was attended by his medical colleagues, Jovan Jovanović Zmaj, M.D., Ilija Ognjenović-Abukazem, M.D. (who became one of the founders of the Serbian medical terminology) and Lazar Stanojević, M.D.
Prose[uredi - уреди]
He is better known for his lyrical poetry than his prose, however, having left us only three but extremely well-written short stories with fantastic elements which need to be looked at. They are: U gostionici kod Poluzvezde na imendanu šantavog torbara (Matica, 1868); Sremska ruža (Matica, 1868-1869); and Zmijina košuljica (Matica, 1868). All three short stories were printed and distributed by the publishing house of Matica srpska in Novi Sad under the supervision of Antonije Hadžić.
Analyzing the fantastic stories of Jovan Grčić-Milenko with reference to Nikolai Gogol (1809-1852) and E. T. A. Hoffmann (1776-1822), one can find that there are some similar elements in their work. The similarity between Gogol and Grcic is not an essential one. It originates from the imperative of time and the political orientation of Grčić Milenko and especially from the use of similar sources: folk fantastic and folk beliefs. All these similarities are easily noticed, though it is impossible to determine how familiar Grčić was with Gogol's work.
The similarities between Grčić and Hoffmann is more general. It cannot be seen at once, but many components of the fantastic are common to both writers. These are: the protagonists feeling being cut off from the others and being exceptional, the feeling of foreboding, and complete interaction between the plot, the main hero and nature. These similarities are not found in single parts of stories (as with Gogol) but throughout the narrative.
References[uredi - уреди]
- Translated and adapted from Serbian: http://politikin-zabavnik.rs/pz/tekstovi/fruskogorski-slavu%D1%98
- Translated and adapted from Serbian Wikipedia: http://sh.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jovan_Milenko_Gr%C4%8Di%C4%87
- Jovan Skerlić, Istoria nove srpske književnosti (Belgrade, 1914, 1921) pages 338-339