Endofita

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Endofita ili endofit je endosimbiont, često a bakterija ili gljiva, koja živi unutar biljke, sa najmanje jedan dio životnog ciklusa, bez očiglednog izazivanja bolesti.[1][2][3][4] Endofite su sveprisutno raširene i nađene su kod svih do danas proučavanih biljaka. Međutim, većina međuodnosa endofit–biljka domaćin nije sasvim poznata.[5][6][7][8] Također poznato je da se endofite javljaju i na lišajima[9] i algama.[10][11] Mnoge ekonomski važne trave (npr. Festuca spp. i Lolium spp.) nose gljivične endofite roda Epichloë,[12][13][14] koje mogu poboljšati rast[15] i snabdijevanje hranjivim sastojcima.[16] Mogu poboljšati i sposobnost biljke da tolerira abiotske stresove, kao što su suša i povećati otpornost na insekte, biljne patogene i sisarske biljojede.[17][18][19]

Prenošenje[uredi - уреди | uredi izvor]

Endofite se mogu prenositi ili vertikalno (direktno od roditelja na potomstvo) ili horizontalno (među jedinkama).[20] Vertikalno prenosivee gljivične endofite se obično smatraju klonskim i prenese preko gljivičnih hifa koje prodiru unutar embriona u sjemenu domaćina, kao naprimjer kod oblika roda Epichloë[21][22][23] Nasuprot tome, reprodukcija putem aseksualnih ili seksualnih spora dovodi do horizontalnog prijenosa, gdje endofite mogu se prenositi između biljaka u populaciji ili u zajednici.[24] Neki endofite koje se često prenose vertikalno mogu proizvesti spore u biljkama, koje se mogu prenijeti horizontalno (npr. Epichloë festucae).[25][26][27] Neke od endofita iz roda Epichloë proizvode skrivene ali infektivne konidijske agense na površini listova.[24][28][29] Međutim, u kojoj mjeri endofite oslanjaju se na ove zagonetne konidije za horizontalni prijenos, još uvijek je nepoznato. Neke endofitske gljivice su zapravo latentni patogeni ili saprotrofi i samo postaju aktivne i razmnožavaju se pod određenim uslovima okoliša ili kada im biljke domaćini to omoguće ili počnu da stare.[30][31]

Vidi još[uredi - уреди | uredi izvor]

literatura[uredi - уреди | uredi izvor]

  1. Stone, J.; Bacon, C; White, J. (1999). Bacon, C and White, J.. ur. An overview of endophytic microbes: endophytism defined. Marcell-Dekker. str. 29–33. ISBN 0-8247-8831-1. 
  2. Clay, Keith; Schardl, Christopher (2002-10-01). "Evolutionary Origins and Ecological Consequences of Endophyte Symbiosis with Grasses.". The American Naturalist 160 (S4): S99–S127. JSTOR 10.1086/342161. PMID 18707456. doi:10.1086/342161. 
  3. Hardoim, Pablo R.; Overbeek, Leonard S. van; Berg, Gabriele; Pirttilä, Anna Maria; Compant, Stéphane; Campisano, Andrea; Döring, Matthias; Sessitsch, Angela (2015-09-01). "The Hidden World within Plants: Ecological and Evolutionary Considerations for Defining Functioning of Microbial Endophytes". Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews (in English) 79 (3): 293–320. ISSN 1092-2172. PMC 4488371. PMID 26136581. doi:10.1128/MMBR.00050-14. 
  4. Suman, Archna; Yadav, Ajar Nath; Verma, Priyanka (2016-01-01). Singh, Dhananjaya Pratap. ur (en). Microbial Inoculants in Sustainable Agricultural Productivity. Springer India. str. 117–143. DOI:10.1007/978-81-322-2647-5_7. ISBN 9788132226451. http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-81-322-2647-5_7. 
  5. Faeth, Stanley H. (2002). "Are endophytic fungi defensive plant mutualists?". Oikos 98 (1): 25–36. JSTOR 3547609. doi:10.1034/j.1600-0706.2002.980103.x. 
  6. White, James F., Jr.; Morrow, Angela C.; Morgan-Jones, Gareth (1990-03-01). "Endophyte-Host Associations in Forage Grasses. XII. A Fungal Endophyte of Trichachne insularis Belonging to Pseudocercosporella". Mycologia 82 (2): 218–226. JSTOR 3759850. doi:10.2307/3759850. 
  7. Saunders, Megan; Glenn, Anthony E.; Kohn, Linda M. (2010-09-01). "Exploring the evolutionary ecology of fungal endophytes in agricultural systems: using functional traits to reveal mechanisms in community processes". Evolutionary Applications (in English) 3 (5-6): 525–537. ISSN 1752-4571. PMC 3352505. PMID 25567944. doi:10.1111/j.1752-4571.2010.00141.x. 
  8. Suryanarayanan, Trichur S. (2013-12-01). "Endophyte research: going beyond isolation and metabolite documentation". Fungal Ecology 6 (6): 561–568. doi:10.1016/j.funeco.2013.09.007. 
  9. Grube, Martin; Cardinale, Massimiliano; de Castro, João Vieira; Müller, Henry; Berg, Gabriele (2009-06-25). "Species-specific structural and functional diversity of bacterial communities in lichen symbioses". The ISME Journal (in English) 3 (9): 1105–1115. ISSN 1751-7362. PMID 19554038. doi:10.1038/ismej.2009.63. 
  10. Flewelling, Andrew J.; Ellsworth, Katelyn T.; Sanford, Joseph; Forward, Erica; Johnson, John A.; Gray, Christopher A. (2013-12-13). "Macroalgal Endophytes from the Atlantic Coast of Canada: A Potential Source of Antibiotic Natural Products?". Microorganisms (in English) 1 (1): 175–187. doi:10.3390/microorganisms1010175. 
  11. Peters, A. F., et al. "Molecular identification, distribution and taxonomy of brown algal endophytes, with emphasis on species from Antarctica." Proceedings of the 17th International Seaweed Symposium, Cape Town, South Africa, 28 January-2 February 2001.. Oxford University Press, 2003.
  12. White, J. F. (1987-01-01). "Widespread Distribution of Endophytes in the Poaceae". Plant Disease 71 (4): 340. doi:10.1094/pd-71-0340. 
  13. Leyronas, C; Raynal, G (2001-08-01). "Presence of Neotyphodium-like endophytes in European grasses". Annals of Applied Biology (in English) 139 (1): 119–127. ISSN 1744-7348. doi:10.1111/j.1744-7348.2001.tb00136.x. 
  14. Iannone, Leopoldo J.; Jr, James F. White; Giussani, Liliana M.; Cabral, Daniel; Novas, María Victoria (2010-04-10). "Diversity and distribution of Neotyphodium-infected grasses in Argentina". Mycological Progress (in English) 10 (1): 9–19. ISSN 1617-416X. doi:10.1007/s11557-010-0669-2. 
  15. Nassar, Amr H.; El-Tarabily, Khaled A.; Sivasithamparam, Krishnapillai (November 2005). "Promotion of plant growth by an auxin-producing isolate of the yeast Williopsis saturnus endophytic in maize (Zea mays L.) roots". Biology and Fertility of Soils 42 (2): 97–108. doi:10.1007/s00374-005-0008-y. 
  16. Vázquez-de-Aldana, Beatriz R.; García-Ciudad, Antonia; García-Criado, Balbino; Vicente-Tavera, Santiago; Zabalgogeazcoa, Iñigo (2013-12-18). "Fungal Endophyte (Epichloë festucae) Alters the Nutrient Content of Festuca rubra Regardless of Water Availability". PLoS ONE 8 (12): e84539. PMC 3867530. PMID 24367672. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0084539. 
  17. Clay, Keith (February 1988). "Fungal Endophytes of Grasses: A Defensive Mutualism between Plants and Fungi". Ecology 69 (1): 10–6. JSTOR 1943155. doi:10.2307/1943155. 
  18. Cheplick, G. P. and S. H. Faeth. 2009. Ecology and Evolution of the Grass-Endophyte Symbiosis. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  19. Kuldau, G.; Bacon, C. (2008-07-01). "Clavicipitaceous endophytes: Their ability to enhance resistance of grasses to multiple stresses". Biological Control. Special Issue: Endophytes 46 (1): 57–71. doi:10.1016/j.biocontrol.2008.01.023. 
  20. Carroll, George (February 1988). "Fungal Endophytes in Stems and Leaves: From Latent Pathogen to Mutualistic Symbiont". Ecology 69 (1): 2–9. JSTOR 1943154. doi:10.2307/1943154. 
  21. White, J.F.; Morgan-Jones, G.; Morrow, A.C. (1993-01-01). "Taxonomy, life cycle, reproduction and detection of Acremonium endophytes". Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 44 (1-4): 13–37. doi:10.1016/0167-8809(93)90037-p. 
  22. Johnston-Monje, David; Raizada, Manish N. (2011-06-03). "Conservation and Diversity of Seed Associated Endophytes in Zea across Boundaries of Evolution, Ethnography and Ecology". PLoS ONE 6 (6): e20396. PMC 3108599. PMID 21673982. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0020396. 
  23. Gundel, Pedro E.; Batista, William B.; Texeira, Marcos; Martínez-Ghersa, M. Alejandra; Omacini, Marina; Ghersa, Claudio M. (2008-04-22). "Neotyphodium endophyte infection frequency in annual grass populations: relative importance of mutualism and transmission efficiency". Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences (in English) 275 (1637): 897–905. ISSN 0962-8452. PMC 2600900. PMID 18198146. doi:10.1098/rspb.2007.1494. 
  24. 24,0 24,1 Tadych, Mariusz; Bergen, Marshall S.; White, James F. (2014-03-01). "Epichloë spp. associated with grasses: new insights on life cycles, dissemination and evolution". Mycologia (in English) 106 (2): 181–201. ISSN 0027-5514. doi:10.3852/106.2.181. 
  25. White, James F., Jr. (1988-07-01). "Endophyte-Host Associations in Forage Grasses. XI. A Proposal concerning Origin and Evolution". Mycologia 80 (4): 442–446. JSTOR 3807845. doi:10.2307/3807845. 
  26. Tintjer, Tammy; Leuchtmann, Adrian; Clay, Keith (2008-07-01). "Variation in horizontal and vertical transmission of the endophyte Epichloë elymi infecting the grass Elymus hystrix". New Phytologist (in English) 179 (1): 236–246. ISSN 1469-8137. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8137.2008.02441.x. 
  27. Chung, K. -R.; Schardl, C. L. (1997-03-01). "Sexual cycle and horizontal transmission of the grass symbiont, Epichloë typhina". Mycological Research 101 (3): 295–301. doi:10.1017/S0953756296002602. 
  28. Tadych, Mariusz; Bergen, Marshall; Dugan, Frank M.; White Jr., James F. (2007-04-01). "Evaluation of the potential role of water in spread of conidia of the Neotyphodium endophyte of Poa ampla". Mycological Research 111 (4): 466–472. doi:10.1016/j.mycres.2007.02.002. 
  29. White, James F., Jr.; Martin, Tyler I.; Cabral, Daniel (1996-03-01). "Endophyte-Host Associations in Grasses. XXII. Conidia Formation by Acremonium Endophytes on the Phylloplanes of Agrostis hiemalis and Poa rigidifolia". Mycologia 88 (2): 174–178. JSTOR 3760920. doi:10.2307/3760920. 
  30. Petrini, Orlando (1991). "Fungal Endophytes of Tree Leaves". u: Andrews, John H.; Hirano, Susan S.. Microbial Ecology of Leaves. Brock/Springer Series in Contemporary Bioscience. str. 179–97. DOI:10.1007/978-1-4612-3168-4_9. ISBN 978-1-4612-7822-1. 
  31. Álvarez-Loayza, Patricia; White, James F. , Jr; Torres, Mónica S.; Balslev, Henrik; Kristiansen, Thea; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Gil, Nathalie (2011-01-31). "Light Converts Endosymbiotic Fungus to Pathogen, Influencing Seedling Survival and Niche-Space Filling of a Common Tropical Tree, Iriartea deltoidea". PLoS ONE 6 (1): e16386. PMC 3031546. PMID 21305008. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0016386. 

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