Orfizam (religija)

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Orfizam ili Orficizam (starogrčki: Ὀρφικά) je naziv za niz religioznih[1] vjerovanja i običaja u antičkom grčkom i helenističkom svijetu,[2][3][4][5] kao i kod Tračana,[6] koji se povezuju s književnošću koja se pripisuje mitskom pjesniku Orfeju, koji je bio u Hadu i vratio se. Orfičari su takođe poštovali Persefonu (koja je provodila jedno godišnje doba u Hadu, a zatim se vraćala) i Dionisa (koji je takođe bio u Hadu i vratio se). Smatra se da je Orfej ustanovio Dionizijske misterije.[7] Poezija koja sadrži čisto orfička vjerovanja datira iz šestog vijeka prije nove ere,[8] ili bar iz kasnog petog.[9]

Klasični izvori, kao što je Platon, spominjali su „orfičke inicijacije“ (Ὀρφεοτελεσταί) i povezane običaje, mada nije sigurno koliko je orfička literatura uopšte povezana s tim običajima.[10] Kao i u eulesinskim misterijama, inicijacija u orfičke misterije obećavala je pogodnosti u zagrobnom životu.

Izvori[uredi - уреди]

  1. Sexuality in Greek and Roman Culture (Ancient Cultures) by Marilyn B. Skinner,2005,page 135,"... of life, there was no coherent religious movement properly termed "Orphism" (Dodds 1957: 147-9; West 1983: 2-3). Even if there were, ..."((en))
  2. Three Faces of God by David L. Miller,2005,Back Matter: "... assumed that this was a Christian trinitarian influence on late Hellenistic Orphism, but it may be that the Old Neoplatonists were closer ..."((en))
  3. A History of the Synoptic Problem: The Canon, the Text, the Composition, and the Interpretation of the Gospels (The Anchor Bible Reference Library) by David Dungan and David Laird Dungan,1999,Back Matter: "... Neoplatonist Albinus (21-31). 54 Dial. 4.2 (italics added). 55 In Hellenistic Orphism, "an ascetic life featuring specific abstinences, especially vegetarianism," would have ..."((en))
  4. History of New Testament Research, Volume 2 (History of New Testament Research) by William Baird,2002,page 393: "... its religious neighbors, Lagrange focuses on a single example of Hellenistic religion, Orphism. This example, he thinks, is particularly appropriate, because Orphism is ...((en))
  5. Luther H. Martin,, Hellenistic Religions: An Introduction 1987:102: "... ritually participated in an actual mystery ritual. More striking to Hellenistic observers of Orphism than any supposed ritual practices were their ascetic practices ..."((en))
  6. History of Humanity: From the seventh century B.C. to the seventh century A.D. Routledge reference, Siegfried J. de Laet, UNESCO, 1996,ISBN 923102812X, pp. 182-183.((en))
  7. Apollodorus (Pseudo Apollodorus), Library and Epitome, 1.3.2. "Orpheus also invented the mysteries of Dionysus, and having been torn in pieces by the Maenads he is buried in Pieria."((en))
  8. Backgrounds of Early Christianity by Everett Ferguson,2003,page 162,"Orphism began in the sixth century B.C"((en))
  9. W. K. C. Guthrie, The Greeks & Their Gods (Beacon, 1954), p. 322; Kirk, Raven, & Schofield, The Presocratic Philosophers (Cambridge, 1983, 2nd edition), pp. 21, 30-31, 33; Parker, "Early Orphism", pp. 485, 497((en))
  10. Parker, "Early Orphism", pp. 484, 487.((en))


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