Kraljevstvo Hotan

Izvor: Wikipedia
Kraljevstvo Hotan
Carstvo
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56–1006 Blank.png ?
Položaj Kraljevstva Hotan
Kovanica Gurgamoye, kralja Hotana, 1. vijek.

Pismo: Kharoshthi "Od velikog Kralja kraljeva, kralja Hotana, Gurgamoye.
Glava: kineski: "Bakrena kovanica od dvadeset četiri zrna". Britanski muzej.

Glavni grad Hotan
Jezik/ci moguće srodni toharskim jezicima, nakon 1. i 2. vijeka Prakrit na Brahmi pismu
Gandhari jezik 3-4. vijek.[1]

hotanski, sakanski dijalekt na varijantio Brāhmī pisma[2]

Religija budizam
Vlast Monarhija
President
 - c. 56 Yulin: Jianwu period (25-56)
 - 969 Nanzongchang (posljednji)
Historija
 - osnovan Hotan cca. 300. pne.
 - Uspostava
 - Yarkand napada i anektira Hotan. Yulin abdicira i postaje kralj Liguia 56
 - Tibet napada i osvaja Hotan 670
 - Hotan osvaja muslimanski vođa Yūsuf Qadr Khān 1006
 - Prestanak
 - Hotan islamiziran

Kraljevina Hotan (Khotan) je naziv za državu koja se u prostirala u 1. milenijumu postojala u Centralnoj Aziji na južnom rubu Taklamanske pustinje u Tarimskoj zavali. Ime je dobila po prijestolnici Hotan, koja se danas nalazi u kineskoj autonomnoj oblasti Xinjiang.

Prvi put se spominje u službenim historijama kineske dinastije Han, kao grad koga je 56. zauezo Xian iz obližnjeg Jarkanda, ali se potom 61. oslobodio, pokorio Jarkand i obližnja mjesta. Kasnije je pao pod vlast Kineza, od koje se oslobodio nakon kolapsa dinastije Han. Zahvaljujući Putu svile bila je važno trgovačko središte, kao i mjesto odakle se širio budizam. U 7. vijeku je postala vazal dinastije Tang; nakratko su njegovim područjem vladali Tibetanci. Godine 1006. ga je osvojio muslimanski vojskovođa Jusuf Kadr Kan.

Fusnote[uredi - уреди]

Literatura[uredi - уреди]

  • Bailey, H. W. (1961). Indo-Scythian Studies being Khotanese Texts. Volume IV. Translated and edited by H. W. Bailey. Indo-Scythian Studies, Cambridge, The University Press. 1961.
  • Bailey, H. W. (1979). Dictionary of Khotan Saka. Cambridge University Press. 1979. 1st Paperback edition 2010. ISBN 978-0-521-14250-2.
  • Beal, Samuel. 1884. Si-Yu-Ki: Buddhist Records of the Western World, by Hiuen Tsiang. 2 vols. Trans. by Samuel Beal. London. Reprint: Delhi. Oriental Books Reprint Corporation. 1969.
  • Beal, Samuel. 1911. The Life of Hiuen-Tsiang by the Shaman Hwui Li, with an Introduction containing an account of the Works of I-Tsing. Trans. by Samuel Beal. London. 1911. Reprint: Munshiram Manoharlal, New Delhi. 1973.
  • Emmerick, R. E. 1967. Tibetan Texts Concerning Khotan. Oxford University Press, London.
  • Emmerick, R. E. 1979. Guide to the Literature of Khotan. Reiyukai Library, Tokyo.
  • Grousset, Rene. 1970. The Empire of the Steppes: A History of Central Asia. Trans. by Naomi Walford. New Brunswick, New Jersey. Rutgers University Press. ISBN 0-8135-1304-9
  • Hill, John E. July, 1988. "Notes on the Dating of Khotanese History." Indo-Iranian Journal, Vol. 31, No. 3. See: [1] for paid copy of original version. Updated version of this article is available for free download (with registration) at: [2]
  • Hill, John E. 2004. The Peoples of the West from the Weilüe 魏略 by Yu Huan 魚豢: A Third Century Chinese Account Composed between 239 and 265 CE. Draft annotated English translation. [3]
  • Hill, John E. (2009) Through the Jade Gate to Rome: A Study of the Silk Routes during the Later Han Dynasty, 1st to 2nd Centuries CE. John E. Hill. BookSurge, Charleston, South Carolina. ISBN 978-1-4392-2134-1.
  • Legge, James. Trans. and ed. 1886. A Record of Buddhistic Kingdoms: being an account by the Chinese monk Fâ-hsien of his travels in India and Ceylon (A.D. 399-414) in search of the Buddhist Books of Discipline. Reprint: Dover Publications, New York. 1965.
  • Watters, Thomas (1904–1905). On Yuan Chwang's Travels in India. London. Royal Asiatic Society. Reprint: 1973.

Dodatna literatura[uredi - уреди]

  • Hill, John E. (2003). Draft version of: "The Western Regions according to the Hou Hanshu. 2nd Edition." "Appendix A: The Introduction of Silk Cultivation to Khotan in the 1st Century CE." [4]

Eksterni linkovi[uredi - уреди]