Immanuel Kant

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Immanuel Kant
filozofija 18. vijeka
Zapadna filozofija
Biografske informacije
Rođenje 22. april 1724. (1724-04-22)
Königsberg, Pruska
(danas Kalinjingrad, Rusija)
Smrt 12. februar 1804. (dob: 79)
Königsberg, Pruska
Nacionalnost Nijemac
Filozofija
Škola/Tradicija kantijanstvo
prosvjetiteljstvo
Glavni interesi epistemologija metafizika
etika logika
Znamenite ideje
Inspiracija
Potpis
Immanuel Kant signature.svg

Immanuel Kant (22.4. 1724. - 12.2. 1804.) njemački je filozof koji se smatra posljednjim velikim misliocem razdoblja Prosvjetiteljstva. Poznat je po filozofskoj doktrini koja se naziva transcendentalni idealizam. Poznat je i po svojim djelima na polju etike, i po tome što je formulirao kategorički imperativ.[1]

On je imao veliki uticaj na romantičke i idealističke filozofe devetnaestog stoljeća, i njegov rad je bio polazna tačka za Hegela. Zajedno sa Hegelom, Fitheom i Šelingom pripadao je klasičnom njemačkom idealizmu ili u njegovom ličnom slučaju transcendentalnom idealizmu. Kantova filozofija se može podijeliti u dva perioda: "do kritički period" i "kritički period".

  • U do-kritičkom periodu Kant se bavi materijalističkim tumačenjem svijeta. Svoju teoriju o nastanku kosmosa iznio je u djelu "Opća historija prirode i teorija neba" (Allgemeine Naturgeschichte und Theorie des Himmels, 1755). U ovom djelu on je predvidio postojanje planete Uran, koja će 1881. godine biti i otkrivena.
  • U kritičkom periodu on daje kritiku predhodne filozofije (filozofije svojih predhodnika) i potpuno prelazi na idealizam. U ovom periodu je napisao svoja najveća djela:[2]
  1. Kritika čistog uma - o spoznaji
  2. Kritika praktičnog uma - o etici
  3. Kritika rasudne snage/Kritika moći suđenja- o umjetnosti

Gnoseologija[uredi - уреди]

U svojoj gnoseologiji (teoriji spoznaje), Kant je napravio tako zvani "kopernikanski obrt". Tvrdio je da se naša spoznaja ne prilagođava predmetima spoznaje već obrnuto, predmeti spoznaje se moraju prilagođavati našim mogućnostima spoznaje. Čitava spoznaja se zasniva na a priornim kategorijama i prolazi kroz tri stupnja:

  1. Čulna spoznaja
  2. Razumska spoznaja
  3. Umska spoznaja
  1. Čulna spoznaja povezuje osjete u opažaje. To je spoznaja samo pojavnih stvari i suština se ne može spoznati. Čulni sadržaji se uklapaju u prostor i vrijeme i izvan njih nema nikakvih doživljaja; gdje prostor predstavlja oblik vanjskih opažaja a vrijeme oblik unutrašnjih opažaja.
  1. Razumska spoznaja je sinteza čulnih podataka. Ona se sastoji iz dvanaest kategorija razuma i uspostavlja uzročno-posljedične veze. Ovdje se javljaju analitički i sintetički sudovi. Analitički sudovi su a priorni i oni ne proširuju znanje dok sintetički sudovi proširuju znanje.
  1. U umskoj spoznaji imamo a priorne ideje, i tu se želi preći granice iskustva. Ovdje se ne otkriva "stvar o sebi". Kant je smatrao da je "stvar o sebi" suština svih stvari. Ona je transcendentalna, podstiće savjest na stvaranje kategorija. Ni umska spoznaja ne može otkriti "stvar o sebi".

Etičko učenje[uredi - уреди]

Kant je dao svoje etičko učenje u djelu "Kritiča praktičnog uma" (Kritik der praktischen Vernunft, 1788). U tumačenju etike Kant polazi od pojma dobre volje. Za njega to je dobro po sebi, bez ikakvih ograničenja, koje ima jedinu svrhu ispunjenje dužnosti odnosno poštovanje zakona. Moralno djelovanje se zasniva na samokontroli jer svaki čovjek već ima a priorni zakon koji nam naređuje kako da se ponašamo. Taj moralni zakon Kant naziva kategoričkim imperativom. Kant je dao više definicija kategoričkog imperativa. Jedna od tih je: "Radi tako da princip tvoga rada može postati princip rada svih drugih". Mada svaki čovjek ima u svojoj svijesti moralni zakon od njegove volje zavisi hoće li ga poštovati ili ne. Tako je moralni zakon uslov "praktičnog uma".

Problem estetike[uredi - уреди]

Kant je dao svoje mišljenje o estetici u svojoj knjizi "Kritika rasudne snage" ili "Kritika moći suđenja" (Kritik der Urteilskraft, 1790). U Kantovoj terminologiji estetika se ne odnosi na filozofiju umjetnosti, već na nešto čulno ili osjetilno. Kant tvrdi da je doživljaj ljepote zasnovan na bezinteresnom sviđanju oblika umjetničkog djela. Lijepo je ono što se svima bez interesa nameće kao takvo.

Kantova nauka o religiji[uredi - уреди]

Temeljne misli svoje filozofske nauke o religiji Kant razvija u djelu Religija unutar granica čistoga uma. On tu razlaže umsku vjeru u njezinom odnosu prema crkvenoj vjeri.

U četiri dijela govori o:

  • radikalnom zlu unutar ljudske naravi
  • borbi dobrog i zlog principa za gospodovanje nad čovjekom
  • pobjedi dobrog principa nad zlim i uspostavljanje Božjeg kraljevstva na zemlji
  • pravoj i lošoj službi pod gospodstvom dobrog principa ili o religiji.

Osnovna terminologija Kantove filozofije[uredi - уреди]

  • A priori = nešto što je prije iskustva, odnosno, nešto što je nezavisno od iskustva
  • A posteriori = ono što je poslije iskustva, odnosno, ono što je iz iskustva
  • Imanentno = unutra, u iskustvu
  • Transcendentno = sa one strane; prelazi granice iskustva
  • Transcendentalno= uslov iskustva; ono što je izvan iskustva ali omogućava iskustvo
  • Estetika = od riječi aestetos što znači čulno, osjetilno

Reference[uredi - уреди]

  1. "Immanuel Kant (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)". Plato.stanford.edu. 20 May 2010. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/kant/. pristupljeno 2011-10-22. 
  2. Kant, Immanuel; Kitcher, Patricia (intro.); Pluhar, W. (trans.) (1996). Critique of Pure Reason. Indianapolis: Hackett. xxviii. 

Literatura[uredi - уреди]

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  • Beck, Lewis White. Early German Philosophy: Kant and his Predecessors. Harvard University Press, 1969. (a survey of Kant's intellectual background)
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  • Cassirer, Ernst. Kant's Life and Thought. Translation of Kants Leben und Lehre. Trans., Jame S. Haden, intr. Stephan Körner. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1981.
  • Houston Stewart Chamberlain Immanuel Kant – a study and a comparison with Goethe, Leonardo da Vinci, Bruno, Plato and Descartes, the authorised translation from the German by Lord Redesdale, with his 'Introduction', The Bodley Head, London, 1914, (2 volumes).
  • Gulyga, Arsenij. Immanuel Kant: His Life and Thought. Trans., Marijan Despaltović. Boston: Birkhäuser, 1987.
  • Johnson, G.R. (ed.). Kant on Swedenborg. Dreams of a Spirit-Seer and Other Writings. Swedenborg Foundation, 2002. (new translation and analysis, many supplementary texts)
  • Josephson, Jason Ānanda. "Specters of Reason: Kantian Things and the Fragile Terrors of Philosophy." J19: Journal of 19th Century Americanists, 2015. (Kant reception and the uncanny in American and Germany).
  • Kuehn, Manfred. Kant: a Biography. Cambridge University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-521-49704-3. (now the standard biography of Kant in English)
  • Lehner, Ulrich L., Kants Vorsehungskonzept auf dem Hintergrund der deutschen Schulphilosophie und -theologie (Leiden: 2007) (Kant's concept of Providence and its background in German school philosophy and theology)
  • Pinkard, Terry. German Philosophy, 1760–1860: the Legacy of Idealism. Cambridge, 2002.
  • Sassen, Brigitte (ed.). Kant's Early Critics: the Empiricist Critique of the Theoretical Philosophy, Cambridge, 2000.
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  • Förster, Eckart (ed.). Kant's Transcendental Deductions:. The Three 'Critiques' and the 'Opus Postumum' Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1989. Includes an important essay by Dieter Henrich.
  • Guyer, Paul & Cohen, Ted (eds). Essays in Kant's Aesthetics, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985.
  • Guyer, Paul (ed.). Kant's Critique of the Power of Judgement. Critical Essays, Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield, 2003.
  • Guyer, Paul (ed.). The Cambridge Companion to Kant, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992. ISBN 0-521-36587-2, ISBN 0-521-36768-9. Excellent collection of papers that covers most areas of Kant's thought.
  • Mohanty, J.N. and Shahan, Robert W. (eds.). Essays on Kant's Critique of Pure Reason. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1982. ISBN 0-8061-1782-6
  • Phillips, Dewi et al. (eds.). Kant and Kierkegaard on Religion. New York: Palgrave Macmillian, 2000, ISBN 0-312-23234-9 Collection of essays about Kantian religion and its influence on Kierkegaardian and contemporary philosophy of religion.
  • Proceedings of the International Kant Congresses. Several Congresses (numbered) edited by various publishers.
  • Allison, Henry. Kant's Transcendental Idealism. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1983, 2004. ISBN 0-300-03629-9, ISBN 0-300-03002-9 (a very influential defense of Kant's idealism, recently revised).
  • Ameriks, Karl. Kant's Theory of Mind: An Analysis of the Paralogisms of Pure Reason. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1982 (one of the first detailed studies of the Dialectic in English).
  • Banham, Gary. Kant's Transcendental Imagination London and New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006.
  • Gilles Deleuze|Deleuze, Gilles. Kant's Critical Philosophy. Trans., Hugh Tomlinson and Barbara Habberjam. University of Minnesota Press, 1984. ISBN 0-8166-1341-9, ISBN 0-8166-1436-9
  • Farias, Vanderlei de Oliveira. Kants Realismus und der Aussenweltskeptizismus. OLMS. Hildesheim, Zürich, New York. 2006. (German)
  • Gram, Moltke S. The Transcendental Turn: The Foundation of Kant's Idealism. Gainesville: University Presses of Florida, 1984. ISBN 0-8130-0787-9
  • Greenberg, Robert. Kant's Theory of A Priori Knowledge. Penn State Press, 2001 ISBN 0-271-02083-0
  • Guyer, Paul. Kant and the Claims of Knowledge. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987 (modern defense of the view that Kant's theoretical philosophy is a "patchwork" of ill-fitting arguments).
  • Guyer, Paul. Knowledge, Reason, and Taste: Kant's Response to Hume. Princeton University Press, 2008.
  • Martin Heidegger. Kant and the Problem of Metaphysics. Trans., Richard Taft. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1997. ISBN 0-253-21067-4
  • Henrich, Dieter. The Unity of Reason: Essays on Kant's Philosophy. Ed. with introduction by Richard L. Velkley; trans. Jeffrey Edwards et al. Harvard University Press, 1994. ISBN 0-674-92905-5
  • Kemp Smith, Norman. A Commentary to Kant's 'Critique of Pure Reason. London: Macmillan, 1930 (influential commentary on the first Critique, recently reprinted).
  • Kitcher, Patricia. Kant's Transcendental Psychology. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990.
  • Longuenesse, Béatrice. Kant and the Capacity to Judge. Princeton University Press, 1998. ISBN 0-691-04348-5. (argues that the notion of judgment provides the key to understanding the overall argument of the first Critique)
  • Melnick, Arthur. Kant's Analogies of Experience. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1973. (important study of Kant's Analogies, including his defense of the principle of causality)
  • Paton, H. J. Kant's Metaphysic of Experience: a Commentary on the First Half of the Kritik der reinen Vernunft. Two volumes. London: Macmillan, 1936. (extensive study of Kant's theoretical philosophy)
  • Robert B. Pippin. Kant's Theory of Form: an Essay on the Critique of Pure Reason. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1982. (influential examination of the formal character of Kant's work)
  • Sala, Giovanni. Kant, Lonergan und der christliche Glaube (Nordhausen: Bautz, 2005), ed. by Ulrich L. Lehner and Ronald K. Tacelli
  • Schopenhauer, Arthur. Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung. Erster Band. Anhang. Kritik der Kantischen Philosophie. F. A. Brockhaus, Leipzig 1859 (In English: Arthur Schopenhauer, New York: Dover Press, Volume I, Appendix, "Criticism of the Kantian Philosophy", ISBN 0-486-21761-2)
  • Schott, Robin May (1997). Feminist interpretations of Immanuel Kant. University Park, Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State University Press. ISBN 9780271016764. 
  • T. K. Seung Kant's Transcendental Logic. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1969.
  • Sgarbi, Marco. La Kritik der reinen Vernunft nel contesto della tradizione logica aristotelica. Hildesheim, Olms 2010
  • P. F. Strawson. The Bounds of Sense: an essay on Kant's Critique of Pure Reason. Routledge, 1989 (the work that revitalized the interest of contemporary analytic philosophers in Kant).
  • Sturm,Thomas. Kant und die Wissenschaften vom Menschen. Paderborn: Mentis Verlag, 2009. ISBN 3897856085; ISBN 978-3897856080. review (Treats Kant's anthropology and his views on psychology and history in relation to his philosophy of science.)
  • Tonelli, Giorgio. Kant's Critique of Pure Reason within the Tradition of Modern Logic. A Commentary on its History. Hildesheim, Olms 1994
  • Werkmeister, W.H., Kant: The Architectonic and Development of His Philosophy, Open Court Publishing Co., La Salle, Ill.; 1980 ISBN 0-87548-345-3 (it treats, as a whole, the architectonic and development of Kant's philosophy from 1755 through the Opus postumum.)
  • Wolff, Robert Paul. Kant's Theory of Mental Activity: a Commentary on the Transcendental Analytic of the Critique of Pure Reason. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1963. (detailed and influential commentary on the first part of the Critique of Pure Reason)
  • Yovel, Yirmiahu. Kant and the Philosophy of History. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1980. (review)
  • Allison, Henry. Kant's Theory of Freedom. Cambridge University Press 1990.
  • Assiter, Alison (July 2013). "Kant and Kierkegaard on freedom and evil". Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement (Cambridge Journals Online) 72: 275–296. doi:10.1017/S1358246113000155. 
  • Banham, Gary. Kant's Practical Philosophy: From Critique to Doctrine. Palgrave Macmillan, 2003.
  • Dorschel, Andreas. Die idealistische Kritik des Willens: Versuch über die Theorie der praktischen Subjektivität bei Kant und Hegel. Hamburg: Felix Meiner, 1992 (Schriften zur Transzendentalphilosophie 10) ISBN 3-7873-1046-0.
  • Koorsgaard, Christine M. The Sources of Normativity. Cambridge University Press, 1996.
  • Michalson, Gordon E. Fallen Freedom: Kant on Radical Evil and Moral Regeneration. Cambridge University Press, 1990.
  • Michalson, Gordon E. Kant and the Problem of God. Blackwell Publishers, 1999.
  • Paton, H. J. The Categorical Imperative: A Study in Kant's Moral Philosophy. University of Pennsylvania Press 1971.
  • Rawls, John. Lectures on the History of Moral Philosophy. Cambridge, 2000.
  • T. K. Seung Kant's Platonic Revolution in Moral and Political Philosophy. Johns Hopkins, 1994.
  • Wolff, Robert Paul. The Autonomy of Reason: A Commentary on Kant's Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals. New York: HarperCollins, 1974. ISBN 0-06-131792-6.
  • Wood, Allen. Kant's Ethical Thought. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999.
  • Allison, Henry. Kant's Theory of Taste: A Reading of the Critique of Aesthetic Judgment. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2001.
  • Banham, Gary. Kant and the Ends of Aesthetics. London and New York: Macmillan Press, 2000.
  • Clewis, Robert. The Kantian Sublime and the Revelation of Freedom. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2009.
  • Crawford, Donald. Kant's Aesthetic Theory. Wisconsin, 1974.
  • Guyer, Paul. Kant and the Claims of Taste. Cambridge, MA and London, 1979.
  • Hammermeister, Kai. The German Aesthetic Tradition. Cambridge University Press, 2002.
  • Immanuel Kant entry in Kelly, Michael (Editor in Chief) (1998) Encyclopedia of Aesthetics. New York, Oxford, Oxford University Press.
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  • McCloskey, Mary. Kant's Aesthetic. SUNY, 1987.
  • Schaper, Eva. Studies in Kant's Aesthetics. Edinburgh, 1979.
  • Zammito, John H. The Genesis of Kant's Critique of Judgment. Chicago and London: Chicago University Press, 1992.
  • Zupancic, Alenka. Ethics of the Real: Kant and Lacan. Verso, 2000.
  • Palmquist, Stephen. Kant's Critical Religion: Volume Two of Kant's System of Perspectives. Ashgate, 2000. ISBN 0-7546-1333-X
  • Perez, Daniel Omar. "Religión, Política y Medicina en Kant: El Conflicto de las Proposiciones". Cinta de Moebio. Revista de Epistemologia de Ciencias Sociales, v. 28, p. 91–103, 2007. Uchile.cl (Spanish)
  • Sir Harry Hinsley, Power and the Pursuit of Peace, Cambridge University Press, 1962.
  • Martin Wight, Four Seminal Thinkers in International Theory: Machiavelli, Grotius, Kant and Mazzini ed. Gabriele Wight & Brian Porter (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005).
  • Bennington, Geoffrey (December 2011). "Kant’s open secret". Theory, Culture & Society (Sage Publications) 28 (7–8): 26–40. doi:10.1177/0263276411423036.  Text "Sage " ignored (help)
  • Caygill, Howard. A Kant Dictionary. Oxford, UK; Cambridge, Mass., US: Blackwell Reference, 1995. ISBN 0-631-17534-2, ISBN 0-631-17535-0
  • Derrida, Jacques. Mochlos; or, The Conflict of the Faculties. Columbia University, 1980.
  • Kelly, Michael. Kant's Ethics and Schopenhauer's Criticism, London: Swan Sonnenschein 1910. [Reprinted 2010 Nabu Press, ISBN 978-1171707950]
  • Mosser, Kurt. Necessity and Possibility; The Logical Strategy of Kant's Critique of Pure Reason. Catholic University of America Press, 2008. ISBN 978-0-8132-1532-7
  • Perez, D. O. . Os significados dos conceitos de hospitalidade em Kant e a problemática do estrangeiro. Revista Philosophica (Chile), v. 31, p. 43–53, 2007. Também em Konvergencias, 2007, nro. 15. UCV.cl, Konvergencias.net
  • Perez, D. O. A loucura como questão semântica:uma interpretação kantiana. Trans/Form/Ação, São Paulo, 32(1): 95–117, 2009. Scielo.br
  • White, Mark D. Kantian Ethics and Economics: Autonomy, Dignity, and Character. Stanford University Press, 2011. ISBN 978-0-8047-6894-8. (Reviewed in The Montreal Review)
  • Guyer, Paul. Kant and The Claims of Taste. Harvard University Press, 1979. 2nd Edition, Cambridge University Press, 1997.
  • Guyer, Paul. Kant and The Claims of Knowledge. Cambridge University Press, 1987.
  • Guyer, Paul. Knowledge, Reason, and Taste: Kant's Response to Hume. Princeton University Press, 2008.
  • Hanna, Robert, Kant and the Foundations of Analytic Philosophy. Clarendon Press, 2004.
  • Hanna, Robert, Kant, Science, and Human Nature. Clarendon Press, 2006.
  • Herman, Barbara. The Practice of Moral Judgement. Harvard University Press, 1993.
  • Korsgaard, Christine. Creating the Kingdom of Ends. Cambridge; New York, NY, US: Cambridge University Press, 1996. ISBN 0-521-49644-6, ISBN 0-521-49962-3 (pbk.) (not a commentary, but a defense of a broadly Kantian approach to ethics)
  • John McDowell. Mind and World. Harvard University Press, 1994. ISBN 0-674-57609-8. (offers a Kantian solution to a dilemma in contemporary epistemology regarding the relation between mind and world)
  • Derek Parfit. On What Matters (2 vols). New York: Oxford University Press, 2011. ISBN 978-0-19-926592-3
  • Steven Pinker. The Stuff of Thought. Viking Press, 2007. ISBN 978-0-670-06327-7. (Chapter 4 "Cleaving the Air" discusses Kant's anticipation of modern cognitive science)
  • Wood, Allen. Kant's Ethical Thought. Cambridge; New York, NY, US: Cambridge University Press, 1999. ISBN 0-521-64836-X. (comprehensive, in-depth study of Kant's ethics, with emphasis on formula of humanity as most accurate formulation of the categorical imperative)

Spoljašnje veze[uredi - уреди]